Personal Pronouns in Spanish

personal pronouns in spanish, personal pronoun, personal pronouns in Spanish, What are the 12 personal pronouns in Spanish, What are the 10 Spanish pronouns, How many personal pronouns are there in Spanish

What are the 12 personal pronouns in Spanish?

Study the personal pronouns in Spanish. Learn to apply Spanish grammar rules with online lessons. Learn more about helpful tips on how to improve your language.

 

Personal Pronouns in Spanish

 

Yo(I)(Singular)

you personal pronouns in spanish

 

(You)(Singular)(Informal)

 

 

you usted personal pronouns in spanish

 

Usted (You)(Singular)(Formal)

he personal pronouns in spanish

 

Él (He)(Singular)

 

she personal pronouns in spanish

 

Ella(She)(Singular)

we personal pronouns in spanish

 

Nosotros(We)(Plural)(Masculine)

 

 

we personal pronouns in spanish

 

Nosotras (We)(Plural)(Feminine)

you all

 

Vosotros (You)(Plural)(Informal)(Masculine)

 

you all

 

Vosotras(You)(Plural)(Informal)(Feminine)

you

 

Ustedes(You)(Plural)

 

 

they

 

Ellas (They)(Plural)(Feminine)

they

 

Ellos(They)(Plural)(Masculine)

 Read more about the Spanish grammar

Prepositional Phrases in Spanish

Prepositions in spanish

What are the 13 prepositional phrases?

Study the prepositional phrases in Spanish. Learn to apply Spanish grammar rules with online lessons. Learn more about helpful tips on how to improve your language.

prepositional phrases

 

Sobre de/Abajo de(Above/Under)

prepositional words in spanish

 

Lejos de(Far from)

 

 

prepositions phrases in spanish

 

Fuera de (Outside)

between prepositions in spanish

 

Entre (Between)

 

on top of prepositions in spanish

 

Encima de(On top of)

in front of prepositions in spanish

 

Enfrente de(In front of)

 

 

in prepositions in spanish

 

En (in)

behind prepositions in spanish

 

Detrás de (Behind)

 

inside prepositions in spanish

 

Dentro de(Inside)

prepositional in spanish

 

Debajo de(Below)

 

 

phrases in spanish

 

Cerca de (Close to)

prepositions in spanish

Al lado de (Beside)



Read more about the prepositions in Spanish
Prepositions in Spanish | Trivia
Spanish Prepositions List

Inequality, equality and superlatives

Inequality, equality and superlatives | Rules


learn spanish Comparisons of Inequality/Equality/Superlatives
Read about inequality, equality and superlatives in Spanish. Learn to apply Spanish grammar rules with online lessons. Learn more about helpful tips on how to improve your language.

Note: Inequality is expressed by using one of the following formula:

más (menos) + adjective + que
más (menos) + adverb + que
más (menos) + noun + que

 

e.g.

Tú eres más alta que yo. –You are taller than me.

Ella es más inteligente que tu prima. She is more intelligent than your cousin

Nosotros tenemos menos materiales que ellos.- We have less materials than them

 

Note: If the comparative is followed by a number, use “de” rather than “que”.

e.g.

Hay menos de cuarenta profesores – There are fewer than forty teachers

Él tiene más de cien  años. – He is more than one hundred years old.

 

Note: When the sentence is negative, “que” is used even with numbers, to convey the meaning “only”

e.g.

No tengo más que diez dólares. (I only have ten dollars.)

 No hay más que cuarenta profesores (There are only forty teachers.)

 

Comparisons of Inequality/Equality/Superlatives in Spanish

Comparisons of equality

Note: The comparisons of “equality using adjectives or adverbs”, use the following formula:

tan + adjective (adverb) + como

e.g.

La chica es tan alta como yo (The girl is as tall as me)

Este helado está tan bueno como ese (This ice cream is as good as that one)


Note: To form comparisons of “equality with nouns”, use the following formula:

tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como

e.g.

Ella tiene tanto dinero como yo. (as much money as)

Él tiene tanta paciencia como ella. (as much patience as)

Tiene tantas carteras como ella. (as many handbags as)

Ella tiene tantos lápices como tú. (as many pencils as)

 

Note: Choose the form of “tanto” to agree with the noun it modifies.

e.g.

tanto dinero
tanta paciencia
tantas carteras

Note: When actions (not things) are being compared, and there is no adjective, use the following formula:

verb + tanto + como

e.g.

Sus hijos comen tanto como mis hijos. (eat as much as)

Ella limpia  tanto como Luisa. (cleans  as much as)

Los mangos cuestan tanto como las uvas (cost as much as)


Note: When actions (not things) are being compared, and there is an adjective, use the following formula:

verb + tan + adjective (masculine form) + como

e.g.

Aquí se trabaja tan duro como ahí. (work as hard as)

El niño baila tan poco como la niña. (dances as little as)

Ellos comen tan poco como ella. (eat as little as)

                                                    Inequality, Equality, Superlatives

Superlatives

 

There are two types of superlative: “relative” and “absolute”. The relative superlative describes a noun within the context of some larger group. The absolute superlative does not describe the noun in the context of a larger group.

e.g.

Relative: Carlos es el más pequeño de la escuela – Carlos is the shortest boy in the school
Absolute: Carlos es muy pequeño – Carlos is very short.

 

Note: In Spanish, the relative superlative construction is similar to the comparative.

definite article + noun + más (menos) + adjective + de

e.g.

Lula es la chica más rápida de la clase. Lula is the fastest girl in the class.

Ese es el plátano más verde de la cesta. That is the greenest banana in the basket.


Tip: The noun can be omitted. 

e.g.

Lula es la chica más rápida de la clase. Lula is the fastest girl in the class.

Lula es la chica más rápida de la clase. Lula is the fastest in the class.


Note: The absolute superlative for adjectives has three possible forms.

muy + adjective
sumamente + adjective
adjective +
ísimo (-a, -os, -as)

e.g.

muy grande – very big

sumamente grande – extremely big

grandísimo – indescribably big

Ir a, Acabar de, Volver a + Infinitive

Ir a, Acabar de, Volver a | Rules

How do you use Acabar de infinitive?


Ir a/Acabar de/Volver a + Infinitive in Spanish
Read about how to use ir a, acabar de, volver a in Spanish. Learn to apply Spanish grammar rules with online lessons. Learn more about helpful tips on how to improve your language.

Many useful expressions are formed by combining two verbs. When this occurs, the first verb is conjugated, while the second verb remains in the infinitive form.

e.g.

 ircaminar – (to go) (to walk)

Yo voy a caminar un poco – I’m going to walk a little

acabar, trabajar – (to finish) (to work)

Tú acabaste de trabajar You just finished working

  saber, cantar  (to know) (to sing)

Lily sabe cantar  Lily knows how to sing.

volver, escribir – (to return) (to write)

Pedro vuelve a escribir un libro – Pedro writes a book again.


Note: One such expression combines the verb “ir” (conjugated) with an infinitive. The preposition “a” is always used.

The formula is:

Verb “ir” conjugated  + a + infinitive = to be going to do something (in the near future)

e.g.

Voy a llegar tarde – I’m going to be late.

Vas a enviar el paquete.- You are going to send the package.

Ella va a hablar con el chico.- She is going to talk to the boy.

Mami va a cocinar carne asada – Mummy is going to cook roast meat

 

– Here are some useful words and expressions for exactly when you are going to do something.

hoy – today

mañana – tomorrow

más tarde – later

esta tarde – this afternoon

la semana que viene – next week

el mes que viene – next month

el año que viene – next year

esta noche – tonight

mañana por la mañana – tomorrow morning

mañana por la tarde – tomorrow afternoon

mañana por la noche – tomorrow night

 

Ir a/Acabar de/Volver a + Infinitive in spanish

Acabar de + infinitive

Many useful expressions are formed by combining two verbs. When this occurs, the first verb is conjugated, while the second verb remains in the infinitive form.

Note: One such expression combines the verb “acabar” (conjugated) with an infinitive. The preposition “de” is always used.

 

The formula is:

Verb “acabar” conjugated + de + infinitive = to have just done something (in the very recent past)

e.g.

Acabo de llegar tarde. – I just arrived late.

Acabas de enviar el paquete. – You just sent the package.

Ella acaba de hablar con el chico.- She just talked to the boy.

Mami acaba de cocinar carne asada – Mummy just cooked roast meat

 

Ir a Acabar de Volver a

Volver a + infinitive

Many useful expressions are formed by combining two verbs. When this occurs, the first verb is conjugated, while the second verb remains in the infinitive form.

Note: One such expression combines the verb “volver” (conjugated) with an infinitive. The preposition “a” is always used.

The formula is:

Verb “volver” conjugated + a + infinitive = to do something again

e.g.

Vuelvo a quererte – I love you again

Paola vuelve a entrar – Paola re-enters

Nosotros volvemos a visitar la ciudad – We return to visit the city

 

Note: Remember, “volver” is an “o:ue” stem-changing verb.

Read more about the Spanish grammar

Acabar conjugation in Spanish

Irregular Verbs in Spanish: Estar, Ir, Dar

Irregular Verbs in Spanish

Irregular Verbs: estar, ir, dar
Read about how to use the irregular verbs  in Spanish. Learn to apply Spanish grammar rules with online lessons. Learn more about helpful tips on how to improve your language.

Note: Notice that “ir” and “dar” follow the same pattern as “estar”; they are irregular in the first person singular (yo).

 

Subject – estar(to be) ir(to go) dar(to give)

Yo (I)-estoy / voy / doy

Tú (You)(Informal)-estás / vas / das

Usted (You)(Formal)-está / va / da

Él/Ella(He/She)-está / va / da

Nosotros(as)(We)-estamos  / vamos / damos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal)-estáis / vais / dais

Ustedes(You)(Formal)-están / van / dan

Ellos(as)(They)-están / van / dan

Read more about the Spanish grammar

Stem Changing Verbs Spanish

What are the types of stem changing verbs?

Stem changing verbs: O:UE in spanish
  • Stem Changing Verbs: OU:E

Remember, there are three types of infinitives: -ar, -er, -ir. Infinitives are made up of two parts: the ending and the stem. 

hablar – habl (stem) + ar (ending)
comer – com (stem) + er (ending)
vivir –
viv (stem) + ir (ending)

With regular verbs, the stem stays the same, and the ending changes as they are conjugated.

Subject – hablar (to speak– comer (to eat) – vivir (to live)

Yo (I)-hablo-como-vivo

Tú (You)(Informal)-hablas-comes-vives

Usted (You)(Formal)-habla-come-vive

Él/Ella(He/She)-habla-come-vive

Nosotros(as)(We)-hablamos-comemos-vivimos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal)-habláis-coméis-vivís

Ustedes(You)(Formal)-hablan-comen-viven

Ellos(as)(They)-hablan-comen-viven

 

With some verbs, the stem also changes when you conjugate them. In the Present Tense, there are three groups of stem-changing verbs:

“o:ue”
“e:ie”
“e:i”

 

Note: With the first group of stem-changing verbs, the letter “o” in the stem changes to “ue” in all forms except the “nosotros” and “vosotros”.

Subject – contar (to count)

Yo (I)-cuento

Tú (You)(Informal)-cuentas

Usted (You)(Formal)-cuenta

Él/Ella(He/She)-cuenta

Nosotros(as)(We)-contamos (exception)

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal)-contáis(exception)

Ustedes(You)(Formal)-cuentan

Ellos(as)(They)-cuentan

 

Here’s another “o:ue” stem changing verb. 

Subject – mover (to move)

Yo (I)-muevo

Tú (You)(Informal)-mueves

Usted (You)(Formal)-mueve

Él/Ella(He/She)-mueve

Nosotros(as)(We)-movemos(exception)

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal)-movéis(exception)

Ustedes(You)(Formal)-mueven

Ellos(as)(They)-mueven

 

Here is a list of common “o:ue” verbs.

almorzar – to eat lunch
morir – to die
aprobar – to approve
mostrar – to show
colgar – to hang
mover – to move (an object)
contar – to count, to tell
probar – to prove, test, sample, taste
costar – to cost
recordar – to remember
devolver – to return (an object)
resolver – to solve
volver – to return (from someplace)
rogar – to beg, pray
dormir – to sleep
sonar – to sound, ring
encontrar – to find
soñar (con) – to dream (about)
envolver – to wrap
tostar – to toast
morder – to bite
volar – to fly

 

                                                     Stem changing verbs

  • Stem Changing Verbs: E:IE

Note: With some verbs, the stem also changes when you conjugate them. In the Present Tense, there are three groups of stem-changing verbs:

“o:ue”
“e:ie”
“e:i”


Note: With the second group of stem-changing verbs, the letter “e” in the stem changes to “ie” in all forms except the “nosotros” and “vosotros”.

Subject – cerrar (to close)

Yo (I)-cierro

Tú (You)(Informal)-cierras

Usted (You)(Formal)-cierra

Él/Ella(He/She)-cierra

Nosotros(as)(We)-cerramos (exception)

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal)-cerráis(exception)

Ustedes(You)(Formal)-cierran

Ellos(as)(They)-cierran

 

Here’s another “e:ie” stem changing verb. 

Subject – entender (to understand)

Yo (I)-entiendo

Tú (You)(Informal)-entiendes

Usted (You)(Formal)-entiende

Él/Ella(He/She)-entiende

Nosotros(as)(We)-entendemos(exception)

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal)-entendéis(exception)

Ustedes(You)(Formal)-entienden

Ellos(as)(They)-entienden

Here is a list of common “e:ie” verbs.

acertar – to guess, get right
encender – to light, kindle
advertir – to advise, warn
entender – to understand
cerrar – to close, shut
fregar – to scrub, wash dishes
comenzar – to begin
hervir – to boil
confesar – to confess
mentir – to lie
consentir – to consent
negar – to deny
convertir – to convert
pensar (en) – to think about
defender – to defend
perder – to lose
empezar – to begin
preferir – to prefer

 

                                                      Stem changing verbs

  • Stem changing verbs: E:I

The stem also changes when you conjugate them. In the Present Tense, there are three groups of stem-changing verbs:

“o:ue”

“e:ie”               

“e:i”

Note: With the third group of stem-changing verbs, the letter “e” in the stem changes to “i” in all forms except the “nosotros” and “vosotros”.

Subject – repetir (to repeat)

Yo (I)-repito

Tú (You)(Informal)-repites

Usted (You)(Formal)-repite

Él/Ella(He/She)-repite

Nosotros(as)(We)-repetimos(exception)

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal)-repetís(exception)

Ustedes(You)(Formal)-repiten

Ellos(as)(They)-repiten

 

 

Subject – competir (to compete)

Yo (I)-compito

Tú (You)(Informal)-compites

Usted (You)(Formal)-compite

Él/Ella(He/She)-compite

Nosotros(as)(We)-competimos(exception)

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal)-competís(exception)

Ustedes(You)(Formal)-compiten

Ellos(as)(They)-compiten

 

Here is a list of common “e:i” verbs.

bendecir (*) – to bless
impedir – to impede
colegir – to deduce
maldecir (*) – to curse
competir – to compete
medir – to measure
conseguir – to get, obtain
pedir – to ask for, to order
corregir – to correct
perseguir – to pursue, to persecute
decir (*) – to say, tell
reír – to laugh
despedir – to dismiss, fire
repetir – to repeat
elegir – to elect
seguir – to follow, continue
freír – to fry
servir – to serve
gemir – to groan, moan
sonreír – to smile

Tip: The verb “decir” and its derivative forms are irregular in the first person: “yo digo”, etc.

 

Al and Del in Spanish – Contractions

When to use al and del in Spanish?

al, del in spanish learn spanish
Let’s find out when to use the contractions al and del in Spanish.

Note: When “a” or “de” precedes the definite article “el”, the two words combine to form a contraction.

a + el = al
de + el = del


e.g.

Vamos al estadioVamos a el estadio – (Let’s go to the stadium)

Este es el lápiz del chico Este es el lápiz de el chico – (This is the boy’s pencil)

Al and Del in Spanish – Rules

Note: “de + la”, “de + las”, “de + los”, “a + la”, “a + las”,and “a + los” are never contracted.

Tip: The pronoun (él) does have a written accent and means “he”. The definite article (el) does not have a written accent and means “the”.

e.g.

el chico (… the boy)

él
baila (…he dances)

Note: Only the definite article “el” is contracted. The pronoun “él” is not.

e.g.

Esa es la casa del chico. – Esa es la casa de el chico.- That’s the boy’s house

Es el carro de él.- It’s his car.

Read more about the Spanish grammar

What is A in Spanish?

This article will tell you what is A in Spanish. A is a word in Spanish, a letter of the alphabet and a preposition.

What is A in Spanish

When to use A in Spanish?

Note: In Spanish, when the direct object is a person, it is preceded by the preposition “a”.

Tip: This word has no English translation.

e.g.

Pedro llama a LucyPedro calls Lucy.

Rosa va a buscar a Lucy Rose goes to look for Lucy

Note: The personal “a” may also be used if the direct object is a domesticated animal, especially a pet, provided that the speaker attaches some sort of personal feelings towards the animal.

e.g.

La mujer ama a su perro. (amar) The woman loves her dog.

El perro persigue a la gata. (perseguir) The dog chases the cat.

Note: The personal “a” is not used when the direct object is not a person or is an animal for which no personal feelings are felt.

e.g.

Bebo el agua. (beber)
I drink the water. — water is neither a person nor an animal

Miro la gata. (mirar)
I look at the cat. — no personal feelings are felt towards the cat

Note: The personal “a” is not used after the verb “tener”, or the verb form “hay”. This is true even if the direct object is a person.

e.g.

Tengo tres primas. (tener) I have three cousins.

Hay dos estudiantes. (hay) There are two students.

Note: If the direct object is an indefinite person, the personal “a” is not used. 

e.g.

Necesito doctor. I need (any) doctor.

Necesito agua. I need (any) “type of” water. 

Note: The word A means also ‘To’ . To is a word which means approaching or reaching. Another meaning of this word is expressing motion into particular direction. It is also used as attachment to some words and often shows that the verb is infinitive.

How do you say A in Spanish?

Conversation:

Marta: Pedro, ¿qué vamos a hacer hoy? | Pedro, what are we going to do today?

Pedro: Hoy nosotros vamos a pescar | Today we are going fishing

More Examples:

Spanish

English

‘Iba a vivir en otra ciudad’

‘Quiero ir a la playa’.

‘Vamos a continuar la clase’

‘Rosa va a buscar a Lucy’

‘He was going to live in another city’

‘I want to go to the beach’

‘Let’s continue the class’

‘Rose goes to look for Lucy’

Read more articles

When do you use tener in Spanish?

How do you use tener in Spanish?

tener in spanish
Let’s find out when do you use the verb tener in Spanish.

There are many idiomatic expressions that use the verb “tener”.

 

e.g.

“tener ___ años”

Incorrect:  (to have _____ years)

Correct: (to be _____ years old)

 

“tener frío”

Incorrect:  (to have cold)

 

Correct:  to be cold

 

“tener calor”

Incorrect:  (to have hot)

Correct:  to be hot

 

“tener hambre”

Incorrect:  (to have hungry)

Correct:  to be hungry

 

“tener sed”

Incorrect:  (to have thirsty)

Correct: to be thirsty

 

“tener sueño”

Incorrect:  (to have sleepy)

Correct:  to be sleepy

 

Note: There are also many idiomatic expressions with
“tener” that express sensations more psychological in nature:

 

“tener prisa”

Correct: to be in a hurry

 

“tener miedo a/de + noun”

Correct: to be afraid of something

 

“tener miedo a/de + infinitive”

Correct: to be afraid to do something

 

“tener celos”

Correct: to be jealous

 

“tener confianza”

Correct: to be confident

 

“tener cuidado”

Correct: to be careful

 

“tener vergüenza”

Correct:  to be ashamed

 

There are other idiomatic expressions with “tener” as well:

“tener razón”

Correct: to be right

 

“tener éxito”

Correct: to be successful

 

“tener la culpa”

Correct: to be guilty

 

“tener suerte”

Correct: to be lucky

 

“tener lugar”

Correct: to take place

 

“tener ganas de”

Correct: to feel like

 

“tener en cuenta”

Correct: to take into account

 

Note: When using these idiomatic expressions, conjugate the verb “tener” according to the subject of the sentence.

e.g.

Nosotros tenemos  cinco años. – We are five years old
Tú tienes ocho años.- You are eight years old
Ellos tienen dos años.-They are two years old


Note: Because the expressions with “tener” use nouns, they are modified with adjectives, not adverbs.

e.g.

Tengo frío. (I am cold)

Tengo 
mucho frío.(I am very cold)

Incorrect: (Tengo muy frío)

 

Tengo suerte (I am lucky)

Tengo 
mucha suerte. (I am very lucky)

Incorrect: (Tengo muy suerte)

 

Tengo hambre (I am hungry)

Tengo 
mucha hambre. (I am very hungry)

Incorrect: (Tengo muy hambre)

Red more about the Spanish grammar

Possessive Adjective

What is a possessive adjective in grammar?

In this lesson you are going to learn the possessive adjective in Spanish. Possessive adjectives are used to show ownership.

possessive adjective

 

Masculine Forms:

Singular Masculine – Plural Masculine

Yo (I)-(My): Mi – Mis

Tú (You)(Informal)-(Your): Tu – Tus

Usted (You)(Formal)-(Your): Su – Sus

Él/Ella(He/She)-(His/Her): Su– Sus

Nosotros(as)We)-(Our): Nuestro – Nuestros    

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal)-(Your): Vuestro– Vuestros

Ustedes(You)(Formal)-(Your): Su – Sus

Ellos(as)(They)- (Their): Su Sus

 

Feminine Forms:

Singular Feminine – Plural Feminine

Yo (I)-(My): Mi – Mis

Tú (You)(Informal)-(Your): Tu – Tus

Usted (You)(Formal)-(Your): Su – Sus

Él/Ella(He/She)-(His/Her): Su  Sus

Nosotros(as)(We)-(Our): Nuestra – Nuestras    

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal)-(Your ): Vuestra – Vuestras

Ustedes(You)(Formal)-(Your): Su – Sus

Ellos(as)(They)-(Their): Su –  Sus

 

e.g.

Mi hermana es alta – My sister is tall

Your time reach – Tu hora llegó

Mi madre está aquí – My mother is here

Esa es su gorra de béisbol – That is his baseball cap

 

What are some rules of possessive adjectives?

Note: Possessive adjectives agree with the nouns they modify. That is, they agree with the thing possessed, not the possessor.

e.g.

Mi primo está enfermo – My cousin is sick

Mis primos están enfermos – My cousins are sick

 

Note: “Mi, mis, tu, tus and su, sus”  do not have masculine and feminine forms. They stay the same, regardless of the gender of the nouns they modify.

e.g.

Mi gat (My cat)(masculine)

Mi gata (My cat)(feminine)

 

Tus hermanos (Your brothers)(masculine)

Tus hermanas (Your sisters)(feminine)

 

Tip: The two words “tu” and “tú” are pronounced the same. “tú” (with the written accent) is the subject pronoun meaning “you” (informal), “tu” (without the written accent) is the possessive adjective meaning “your” (informal).

e.g.

eres bonita – You are pretty

Tu mamá es bonita – Your mother is pretty

 

Note: “Su” has four meanings: his, her, their and your (formal).

e.g.

Mi mamá ama a su esposo – My mom loves her husband

Mi papá ama a su esposa – My dad loves his wife

Ellos aman a sus hijas – They love their daughters

Usted ama a su hija – You love your daughter


Note: If the meaning of “su” is not clear from the context of the sentence, a prepositional phrase is used in place of “su”

e.g.

Jorge busca a la hermana de él. – Jorge looks for his sister.

El hombre busca las llaves de ella. – The man looks for her keys.