Nosotros Commands in Spanish

Nosotros Commands in Spanish

How do you form nosotros commands in Spanish?

Learn how to use nosotros commands in Spanish. Note: “Nosotros” commands are used when the speaker isincluded, and are used to express the idea “let’s + verb”. To form these commands, use the “nosotros” form of the Present subjunctive.

Escribamos la carta – Let’s write the letter.

Pintemos las paredes. – Let’s paint the walls.


Note: To form the negative command, place the word “no” before the same verb form (Present subjunctive).

No escribamos la carta – Let’s not write the letter.

No pintemos las paredes. – Let’s not paint the walls.


Note: The only exception is the verb “ir(se)”, which uses the Present indicative for the affirmative command only.

Affirmative:

Vamos ahora. – Let’s go now.

Negative:

No vayamos ahora. – Let’s not go now.


Note: As with other commands, a written accent is often required when pronouns are added. With affirmative commands, the final “s” of the verb form is dropped before adding the pronouns “nos” or “se”

amemo – s + nos = amémonos.
Let’s love ownself

escribamo – s + se + los = escribámoselos.
Let’s write it to them.


But not with negative commands.

No nos amemos. – Let’s not love ownself

No se los escribamos. – Let’s not write it to them.


Note: “Vamos a + infinitive” can also be used to convey the meaning “Let’s ___.”

Note the two different ways of saying the same thing.

Bailemos juntos. – Let’s dance together.

Vamos a bailar juntos. – Let’s dance together.

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Vosotros Commands in Spanish

How do you use Vosotros commands in Spanish?

Vosotros Commands in Spanish

Learn how to use vosotros commands in Spanish. Note: The affirmative “vosotros” command is formed by simply replacing the final “r” of the infinitive with “d”

Comprad (vosotros) el libro. – (You-all) Buy the book

Escribid (vosotros) la carta. – (You-all) Write the letter.

Comprad (vosotros) los libros.- (You-all) Buy the books.

 

Note: As with the negative “tú” commands, the negative “vosotros” commands use the corresponding Present subjunctive forms.

No compréis (vosotros) el libro. – (You-all) Don’t buy the book.

No escribáis (vosotros) la carta. – (You-all) Don’t write the letter

No compréis (vosotros) los libros. – (You-all) Don’t buy the books.

Note: With affirmative commands using a reflexive verb, the final “d” of the verb form is dropped before adding the pronoun “os”

Senta – d + os = Sentaos – Sit down.


Tip: The only exception is the verb “irse” which retains the final “d”

¡Idos! – Go away!

 

Note: Verbs ending in “-ir” will require a written accent.

Vesti – d + os = Vestíos – Get dressed.

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Irregular Commands: Tú

Which of the Following Tú Commands is Irregular?

Irregular Commands: Tú

Learn how to use the irregular commands: tú in Spanish. The following eight verbs have irregular informal commands in the affirmative:

decir – di (to say)

salir – sal(to get out)

hacer – haz(to do)

ser – sé (to be)

ir – ve(to go)

tener – ten(to have)

poner – pon(to put)

venir – ven (to come)


Note:  The irregularities only occur with affirmative “tú” commands. As with all other verbs, to form negative informal commands with these verbs, use the “tú” form of the Present subjunctive.

e.g.

Di la verdad. (Tell the truth)

No digas mentiras. (Don’t tell lies)

Haz tu limpieza. (Make your cleaning)

No hagas la limpieza. (Do not do the cleaning)

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Informal Commands: Tú

What is the informal tú command?

Informal Commands: Tú

Learn how to use the informal commmands: tú in Spanish. Start learning basic Spanish words and phrases with online lessons.

Note: The affirmative informal “tú” commands are formed the same way as the Present indicative “Usted” form:

(hablar + a = habla)
(comer  + e = come)
(escribir + e = escribe)

Note: Be sure to note that the “tú” commands use the usted form, not the “tú” form.

e.g.

Habla (tú) con mi papá. – (You) Speak with my dad.

Come (tú) la cena. – (You) Eat the dinner.

Escribe (tú) el libro. – (You) Write the book.

The negative informal commands use the “tú” form of the Present subjunctive.

e.g.

No hables (tú) con mi papá. – Do not talk with my dad.

No comas (tú) la cena. – Do not eat the dinner.

No escribas (tú) el libro. – Do not write the book.


Note: Also note that the subject pronoun “tú” is not normally used with imperative form.

e.g.

Habla más lentamente.- (You) Speak more slowly.

Come la cena. – (You) Eat the dinner.

Escribe el libro. – (You) Write the book.

Sentences with the word tú in Spanish

Hay una cierta falta de química entre tú y Tomás.There is a certain lack of chemistry between you and Tomas.
Tú has sido como un padre para mí.You have been like a father to me.
¿Qué tipo de emoción es esa para alguien como tú?What kind of emotion is that for someone like you?
Recuerda que tú eres un artista.Remember that you are an artist.
La buena noticia es que tú puedes recrear sus pasos.The good news is that you can recreate his steps.
Una chica como tú podría tenerlo todo en el mundo.A girl like you could have everything in the world.
Como es una experiencia privada, tú decides la ruta.As it is a private experience, you decide the route.
Y tú puedes ser una luz para el mundo también.And you can be a light to the world too.
Espera, ¿entonces tú vives aquí y él vive en Londres?Wait, so you live here and he lives in London?
Hoy tú fuiste un santo para mí y mi familia.Today you were a saint for me and my family.
Es una imagen que solo tú puedes ver y oír.It is an image that only you can see and hear.
Bueno, tú y tu hermana son mis dos obras maestras.Well, you and your sister are my two masterpieces.
Si tus hijos forman parte de nuestro club, tú también.If your children are part of our club, so are you.
Yo sé que tú eres una buena persona.I know that you are a good person.
Es el apartamento perfecto para una mujer joven como tú.It is the perfect apartment for a young woman like you.
Ves, esa es la diferencia entre tú y tus amigos.See, that’s the difference between you and your friends.
¿Qué estás haciendo tú aquí?What are you doing here?
Y solo tú tienes el poder de buscar esas respuestas.And only you have the power to seek those answers.
Una chica como tú podría ser una dama.A girl like you could be a lady.
Solo tú puedes implementar un plan que genere resultados positivos.Only you can implement a plan that generates positive results.
Porque mi mamá es una princesa, como tú me dijiste.Because my mom is a princess, like you told me.
Este es mi negocio y tú eres mi empleado.This is my business and you are my employee.
Y si él pregunta, tú y tu esposa están solos.And if he asks, you and your wife are alone.
Pero tú, estás dispuesta a arriesgar la vida por amor.But you, you’re willing to risk your life for love.
Es mi mejor amigo, pero tú sabes lo que necesita.He is my best friend, but you know what he needs.
Tú y yo hemos sido amigos desde la academia.You and I have been friends since the academy.
Ella vino a mí cuando era más joven que tú.She came to me when she was younger than you.
Pero entonces tú entraste a mi vida y todo cambió.But then you came into my life and everything changed.
Pero tú has ganado el respeto de todos ellos.But you have earned the respect of all of them.
Y tú quizás seas mi última oportunidad de ser feliz.And you may be my last chance to be happy.

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Formal Commands in Spanish

Formal Commands in Spanish

How do you give formal commands in Spanish?

Formal commands in Spanish are used when ordering or telling someone to do something. This is often referred to as the “imperative” form of the verb.

Haga Ud. el desayuno.- Make (You)  breakfast.

Escriba  Ud. la carta. – Write (You)  the letter.

Salgan Uds. primero. – (You-all) Come out first

Vayan Uds. después. – Go (You-all) later.


Note: Spanish has both a formal and an informal style of speech (tú / usted). This distinction applies to commands. Informal, speech is used among friends, coworkers, relatives, or when addressing a child. Formal speech is generally used to be polite or to express respect.

Haga usted el desayuno. – Make (You)  breakfast. (formal)

Tú harás el desayuno. – (You) will make breakfast. (informal)

 

Note: The formal commands are formed the same way as the Present subjunctive:

  1. Start with the yo form of the present indicative.
  2. Then drop the – o ending.
  3. Finally, add the following endings:


ar verbs/
er verbs/ir verbs

Usted (you formal)e/a/a

Ustedes(you all formal)en/an/an

 

e.g.

Hable usted rápido – Speak fast

Hablen ustedes rápido – Speak fast

 

Coma usted lento – Eat slow

Coman ustedes lento – Eat slow

 

Escriba usted con claridad – Write clearly

Escriban ustedes con claridad – Write clearly

 

Remember, if the first person singular (Yo) form is irregular, that irregularity is carried over into the formation of the formal command.

e.g.

pedir (to ask) (Yo pido)

Pida más tiempo.  – Ask for more time

 

As with the Present subjunctive, the following verbs are irregular:

Dar (to give)dé usted / den ustedes

Estar (to be)esté usted / estén ustedes

Ir (to go)vaya usted / vayan ustedes

Ser(to be)sea usted / sean ustedes

Saber(to know)sepa usted / sepan ustedes.

 

The affirmative and negative commands use the same verb forms.

Affirmative-Negative

Hable usted. – (Speak).-No hable usted. – (Don’t speak).

Coma usted.- (Eat)-No coma usted. – (Don’t eat).

Escriba usted. – (Write).-No escriba usted. – (Don’t write).

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Relative Adjectives in Spanish

What are Relative Adjectives in Spanish?

Relative Adjectives in Spanish

Note: We include the relative adjectives in Spanish  “cuyo, cuya, cuyos, cuyas” in this discussion because it relates the owner to that which is owned, as does the English “whose”. 

e.g

La gata, cuyo dueño es mi hermano, es muy peligrosa – The cat, whose owner is my brother, is very dangerous

El niño, cuyos padres están aquí, es muy inteligente. – The child, whose parents are here, is very intelligent.

Carlos, cuya tía es rubia, tiene el cabello negro – Carlos, whose aunt is blonde, has black hair

Paola, cuyas primas son cubanas, es muy hábil – Paola, whose cousins are Cuban, is very skilled


Note: The adjective agrees in number and gender with the thing being owned, not with the owner:

La gata, cuyo dueño es mi hermano, es muy peligrosa.

El niño, cuyos padres están aquí, es muy inteligente.

Carlos, cuya tía es rubia, tiene el cabello negro.

Paola, cuyas primas son cubanas, es muy hábil.

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el que, la que, los que, las que, lo que

What are Relative Pronouns in Spanish?: el que, la que, los que, las que, lo que

el que,la que, los que, las que,lo que

Note: The relative pronouns: (el que, la que, los que, las que, lo que) in Spanish are used to refer to both people and things. Note that there are four forms to accommodate singular and plural, masculine and feminine.

e.g.

Mi amigo, el que es profesor de la universidad. – My friend, who is a professor at the university.

Tus zapatos, los que te compró tu mamá. – Your shoes, the ones your mom bought you.

La cama, la que vimos en la mueblería. – The bed, the one we saw in the furniture store

Las enfermeras, las que estaban de guardia en el hospital. – The nurses, the ones who were on duty at the hospital.


Another set of relative pronouns can be used in place of “el que, la que, los que, and las que”.
These are not commonly used in everyday conversation, and are generally reserved for written Spanish or formal oratory:

el cual
la cual
los cuales
las cuales

e.g.

Mi amigo, el cual es profesor de la universidad. – My friend, who is a professor at the university.

Tus zapatos, los cuales te compró tu mamá. – Your shoes, the ones your mom bought you

La cama, la cual vimos en la mueblería. – The bed, the one we saw in the furniture store

Las enfermeras, las cuales estaban de guardia en el hospital. – The nurses, the ones who were on duty at the hospital.

 

Note: When the relative pronoun refers to an abstract idea, use “lo que”

e.g.

Lo que tú dices que hay, se acabó. – What you say there is, it’s over.

Lo que hiciste, no es lo correcto – What you did, it’s not right.

Lo que un día fue, ya no será – What one day was, will no longer be.

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Relative Pronouns in Spanish

relative pronouns in Spanish
Learn how and when to use the relative pronouns in Spanish.

Qué, Quién: Relative Pronouns in Spanish

Que: relative pronouns

One way to view relative pronouns is to recognize that they combine two sentences that share a common noun.

In the following examples, the common nouns are “butter” or “mantequilla”; “homework” or “tarea”

e.g.

¿Dónde está la mantequilla? – Where is the butter?

Compraste mantequilla. – You bought butter.

¿Dónde está la mantequilla que compraste? – Where is the butter that you bought?

 

¿Dónde está la tarea? – Where is the homework?

Hiciste la tarea  – You did the homework

¿Dónde está la tarea que hiciste? – Where is the homework you did?


Note: Another way to view relative pronouns is to recognize that they are used to introduce a clause that modifies a noun.

e.g.

Terminé el trabajo anoche. – I finished the job last night.

Era demasiado el trabajo. – It was to much work.

El trabajo que terminé anoche era demasiado – The work I finished last night was too much

 

The most common relative pronoun and the one used in the previous two examples is “que”. It can be used to refer to both persons and things, in either the subject or the object position. “Que” is the Spanish equivalent of the English words: “who, whom, which, and that”.

e.g.

El hombre que es pobre … (person, subject) – The man who is poor…

Los libros que son extensos … (thing, subject) – The books which are long …

La señorita que conocí … (person, object) – The young lady whom I met …

La carta que leíste … (thing, object) – The letter that you read …


Tip: The relative pronoun is often omitted in English, but it is never omitted in Spanish.

e.g.

La casa que compramos es nueva. – The house (that) we bought is new.

El programa que miraba era cómico. – The show (that) I was watching was comical.

 

Quien: relative pronouns

Note: The relative pronoun “quien” is used only to refer to people, and has a plural form “quienes” (There is no masculine/feminine distinction)

e.g.

Mi sobrina, quien es estudiante de la universidad, participará en el concurso. – My niece, who is a student at the university, will participate in the contest.

El muchacho, con quien hablaste, es mi hermano – The boy, with whom you spoke, is my brother

Quien habla mucho, hace poco – Who talks a lot, do little

 

Note: When the relative pronoun refers to a person and is in the direct object position, either “que” or “a quien” may be used. Notice that the personal “a” is used with “quien” but is not used with “que”.

e.g.

La chica que ayudé, era muy alta – The girl whom I helped was very tall

La chica a quién ayudé, era muy alta – The girl whom I helped was very tall

 

Note: When the relative pronoun occurs after a preposition and refers to a person, “quien” must be used. After a preposition, “que” is only used to refer to things.

e.g.

Los estudiantes, con quienes competimos, eran más inteligentes – The students, with whom we compete, were smarter

El libro en que pienso es caro, no es barato – The book that I think about is expensive, it’s not cheap

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Indirect Commands in Spanish

What is an indirect command in Spanish?

Indirect Commands in Spanish

Learn how to use the indirect commands in Spanish.

Note: When the command is given through a third party, indirect commands in Spanish are used. The form is “que + Present subjunctive”

e.g.

Que venga Rosa. – Let Rose come.

Que vengan a las once – Have them come at eleven o’clock.

Que hable lo que tiene que hablar- Let him speak what he has to speak

 

Note: Indirect commands are also used to convey a hope or a wish.

Que le ganes la pelea – (I want) you (to) win the fight.

Que tenga un feliz cumpleaños – May you have a happy birthday

Que logres tu objetivo – (I want) you (to) achieve your goal

 

– The following examples include pronouns and negative commands.

Que no venga Rosa. – Do not let Rose come.

Que no vengan a las once – Do not have them come at eleven o’clock.

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Imperfect Subjunctive in Spanish

What is the Imperfect Subjunctive in Spanish?

Imperfect Subjunctive in Spanish

The Imperfect tense of the subjunctive mood is used to express the same subjectivity as the Present subjunctive, but in the past.

Imperfect Subjunctive in Spanish 1

To indicate an action in the past in the same situations where the subjunctive would be required in the Present:

e.g.

Era importante que Paola me trabajara en el centro. (Imperfect subjunctive) – It was important that Paola would work for me in the center

Es importante que Paola me trabaje en el centro. (Present subjunctive)  – It is important that
Paola works for me at the center.


– After the expression “ojalá” or “ojalá que” :

e.g.

Ojalá que lloviera mañana. (Imperfect subjunctive)
I hope that it would rain tomorrow.
Ojalá que llueva
mañana. (Present subjunctive)
I hope that it rains tomorrow.


– In if clauses to indicate contrary-to-fact or unlikely events:

e.g.

Aprenderías más rápido si estudiaras más (Imperfect subjunctive)
You would learn faster if you studied.


– When the verb in the main clause is in one of the past tenses or in the conditional, the Imperfect subjunctive is used in the dependent clause:

Preterite

Quise que él me visitara.
I wanted him to visit me.

Imperfect

Quería que mi amigo me visitara cada día.
I wanted my friend to visit me every day.

Past Perfect

He querido que mi amigo me visitara.
I had wanted that my friend to visit me .

Conditional

Querría que mi amigo me visitara.
I would like my friend to visit me.


– When the verb in the main clause is in the Present but it refers to a previous occurrence:

e.g.

Me gusta que ella llegara con él.
I like that she came with him

Es bueno que te comieras toda la comida
It’s good that you eat all the food


– To indicate politeness:

Quisiera ir contigo – I would like to go with you

¿Pudiera ir con ustedes?  – Could I go with you?

Ella debiera ayudarla – She should help her

Imperfect Subjunctive 2

It is important to know that in Spanish there are two complete sets of conjugations in the Imperfect Subjunctive tense. In some Latin American countries only the “-a” form is used in the spoken Spanish, while the “-se” form is mainly used in literary work.

Note: You can conjugate in the “-a conjugation”  of the Imperfect Subjuntive by following the next steps:

1. take the third person plural of the Preterite form of any – ar, – er and – ir verbs

2. drop the – on ending to find the root

3. add the following endings to that root

“- a” conjugation

– a, – as, – a, – amos, – ais, – an

e.g.

bailar – to dance

3rd person plural of the preterite of bailar = bailaron

we remove the – on ending

the root is bailar –

Subject – bailar ( to dance)

Yo (I)  – bailar – a (regular)

Tú (You)(Informal) – bailar -as

Usted (You)(Formal) – bailar -a

Él/Ella(He/She) – bailar -a

Nosotros(as)(We) – bailár -amos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – bailar -ais

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – bailar -an

Ellos(as)(They) – bailar -an

 

correr – to run (irregular)

3rd person plural of the preterite of correr = corrieron

we remove the – on ending

the root is correr –

Subject – correr (to run)

Yo (I) – corrier-a

Tú (You)(Informal) – corrier-as

Usted (You)(Formal) – corrier-a

Él /Ella(He/She) – corrier-a

Nosotros(as)(We) – corriér-amos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – corriér-ais

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – corrier-an

Ellos(as)(They) – corrier-an

 

vivir – to live (irregular)

3rd person plural of the preterite of vivir = vivieron

we remove the – on ending

the root is vivir-

Subject – vivir (to live)

Yo (I) – vivier-a

Tú (You)(Informal) – vivier-as

Usted (You)(Formal) – vivier-a

Él/Ella(He/She) – vivier-a

Nosotros(as)(We) – viviér-amos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – viviér-ais

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – vivier-an

Ellos(as) (They) – vivier-an

 

Note: You can conjugate in the “-se conjugation” of the Imperfect Subjuntive by following the next steps:

1. take the third person plural of the preterite form of any – ar– er and – ir verbs
2. drop the 
– ron ending to find the root
3. add the following endings to that root

“-se” conjugation

– se, – ses, – se, – semos, – seis, – sen

This rule works perfectly for all three families of verbs (– ar– er and – ir),

e.g.

bailar – to dance (regular)

3rd person plural of the preterite of bailar = bailaron

we remove the – ron ending

the root is baila-

Subject – bailar ( to dance)

Yo (I) – baila-se

Tú (You)(Informal) – baila -ses

Usted (You)(Formal) – baila -se

Él/Ella(He/She) – baila -se

Nosotros(as)(We) – bailá -semos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – baila -seis

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – baila -sen

Ellos(as)(They) – baila -sen

 

correr – to run (irregular)

3rd person plural of the preterite of correr = corrieron

we remove the – ron ending

the root is corrie-

Subject – correr (to run)

Yo (I) – corrie-se

Tú (You)(Informal) – corrie-ses

Usted (You)(Formal) – corrie-se

Él/Ella(He/She) – corrie-se

Nosotros(as)(We) – corrié-semos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – corrie-seis

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – corrie-sen

Ellos(as)(They) – corrie-sen

 


vivir – to live (irregular)

3rd person plural of the preterite of vivir = vivieron

we remove the – on ending

the root is vivier-

Subject – vivir (to live)

Yo (I) – vivie-se

Tú (You)(Informal) – vivie-ses

Usted (You)(Formal) – vivie-se

Él /Ella(He/She) – vivie-se

Nosotros(as)(We) – vivié-semos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – vivie-seis

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – vivie-sen

Ellos(as)(They) – vivie-sen


Imperfect Subjunctive 3

We know that in Spanish there are three kinds of verbs according to their ending:

1. – ar verbs
2. – er verbs
3. – ir verbs

Note: “- ar” and “- er” verbs do not change the stem in the Preterit. Therefore, there is no change in the stem of the Imperfect subjunctive:

repasar (to review) …repasaron (Preterite) 

yo ..repasara

tú…repasaras

usted/él/ella …repasara 

nosotros(as)..repasáramos 

vosotros(as)…repasarais

ellos(as)…repasaran

 

barrer (to sweep) …barrieron (Preterite) 

yo…barriera 

tú…barrieras

usted/él/ella…barriera 

nosotros(as)…barriéramos 

vosotros(as)…barrierais

ellos(as)…barrieran


Note: “- ir” verbs, however, change the stem in the preterite in both the third person singular and plural. Therefore, the spelling of the imperfect subjunctive is affected.

There are three different stem-changing groups within the “- ir” verbs:

1. “e>ie” stem-changing
“- ir” verbs: the “e” of the stem changes into “i” in the third person plural of the preterit.

sentir (to feel) …sintieron (Preterite) 

yo…sintiera

tú…sintieras

usted/él/ella…sintiera

nosotros(as)…sintiéramos

vosotros(as)…sintierais 

ellos(as)…sintieran (Imperfect subjunctive)

 

If there are two “e”s in the stem, it is the second one “e” that changes:

preferir (to prefer) …prefirieron (Preterite) 

yo…prefiriera

tú…prefirieras

usted/él/ella…prefiriera 

nosotros(as)…prefiriéramos

vosotros(as)…prefirierais

ellos(as)…prefirieran (Imperfect subjunctive)


2. “e>i” stem-changing
“-ir” verbs: the “e” of the stem changes into an “i”.

pedir (to ask for) …pidieron (Preterite) 

yo…pidiera

tú…pidieras

usted/él/ella…pidiera

nosotros(as)…pidiéramos

vosotros(as)…pidierais

ellos(as)…pidieran (Imperfect subjunctive)

 

– If there are two “e”s in the stem, it is the second “e” that changes:

repetir (to repeat) …repitieron (Preterite) 

yo…repitiera

tú…repitieras 

usted/él/ella…repitiera

nosotros(as)…repitiéramos

vosotros(as)…repitierais 

ellos(as)…repitieran


3. “o>u” stem-changing “-ir” verbs:
the “o” of the stem changes to “u”.

dormir (to sleep)… durmieron (Preterite) 

yo…durmiera

tú…durmieras

usted/él/ella…durmiera 

nosotros(as)…durmiéramos 

vosotros(as)…durmierais 

ellos(as)…durmieran (Imperfect subjunctive)

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