Past Simple vs Past Participle

Past Simple vs Past Participle

Past Simple vs Past Participle in Spanish

It’s time to learn how to conjugate the Past Simple vs Past Participle in Spanish. Study Spanish verb conjugations with online lessons. Read about the Spanish grammar rules.

Note: To form the Past participle, simply drop the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) and add “-ado” (for -ar verbs) or “-ido” (for -er, -ir verbs).

habl ar – ar + ado = hablado

com er – er + ido = comido

viv ir – ir ido = vivido

 

Note: The following common verbs have irregular Past participles:

abrir (to open) – abierto (open)

cubrir (to cover) – cubierto (covered)

decir (to say) – dicho (said)

escribir (to write) – escrito (written)

freír (to fry) – frito (fried)

hacer (to do) – hecho (done)

morir (to die) – muerto (dead)

poner (to put) – puesto (put)

resolver (to resolve) – resuelto (resolved)

romper (to break) – roto (broken)

ver (to see) – visto (seen)

volver (to return) – vuelto (returned)

 

Note: The compound verbs based on the irregular verbs inherit the same irregularities. 

e.g.

componer (to compose) – compuesto
describir (to describe) – descrito
devolver (to give back)– devuelto


Note: Most Past participles can be used as adjectives. Like other adjectives, they agree in gender and number with
the nouns that they modify.

e.g.

La ventana está cerrada. – The window is closed.

Las ventanas están cerradas– The windows are closed.

El hospital está abierto The hospital is open.

Los hospitales están abiertos. – The hospitals are open.



Note: The Past participle can be combined with the verb “ser” to express the passive voice. Use this construction when an action is being described, and introduce the doer of the action with the word “por”

La casa fue registrada en el 1900. – The house was registered in 1900

 

Note: For “- er” and “- ir” verbs, if the stem ends in a vowel, a written
accent 
will be required.

creer – creído

o
ír – oído



Note: This rule does not apply, and no written accent is required for verbs ending in “- uir”. (construir, seguir, influir, distinguir, etc.)

 

Ago in Spanish Simple Past

Ago in Spanish Simple Past

Ago in Spanish – Simple Past

It’s time to learn how to use ago in Spanish in the Simple Past. Study Spanish verb conjugations with online lessons. Read about the Spanish grammar rules.

Note: When the verb is in the Preterite Tense, a different meaning is conveyed:

“hace” + time “que” + Preterite tense form of the verb

Examples:
Hace dos semanas que salí de viaje – It’s been two weeks since I went on a trip
Sí, hace tres días que me hice la prueba – Yes, I took the test three days ago
Hace un año que vivo con mi mamá – I’ve been living with my mom for a year


There is another way to convey the same idea:
Preterite tense form of the verb “hace” + time

Examples:
Trabajé ahí hace un año – I worked there a year ago
Estuve allí hace un mes – I was there a month ago
Cantó ahí hace uns días – Sang there a few days ago 

More Examples:

Trabajo allí desde hace un año. – I’ve been working there for a year.
No te he visto por un tiempo – I haven’t seen you for a while
No he sabido nada de ella desde hace dos semanas – I haven’t heard from her for two weeks
Ha pasado un mes desde que terminé la universidad – It’s been a month since I finished college
Hace unos meses vi a Juan – A few months ago I saw Juan

Learn more about the Spanish verb tenses

Simple Past Tips in Spanish

Simple Past Tips in Spanish

Simple Past Tips in Spanish

It’s time to learn about some Simple Past tips in Spanish. Study Spanish verb conjugations with online lessons. Read about the Spanish grammar rules.

What are some Simple Past Tips in Spanish?

Note: “-ar” and “-er” verbs that change their stem in the Present tense do not change in the Preterite. They are conjugated just like other regular Preterite verbs.

 

e.g. 
entender
 (to understand)

Subject-PresentPreterite

yoentiendoentendí

entiendesentendiste

usted/él/ellaentiendeentend

nosotros(as)entendemosentendimos

vosotros(as)entendéisentendisteis

ustedes/ellos(as)entiendenentendieron

 

Note: “- ir” verbs that change their stem in the Present tense do change in the Preterite, but in a different way. They change “e:i” and “o:u” in the third person, singular and plural.

e.g.   preferir (to prefer)

Subject-PresentPreterite

yoprefieropreferí

prefierespreferiste

usted/él/ellaprefiereprefirió

nosotros(as) preferimospreferimos

vosotros(as)preferíspreferisteis

ustedes/ellos(as)prefierenprefirieron

 

e.g. dormir (to sleep)

Subject-PresentPreterite

yoduermodormí

duermesdormiste

usted/él/elladuerme durmió

nosotros(as)dormimosdormimos

vosotros(as)dormísdormisteis

ustedes/ellos(as)duermendurmieron

 

Note: In order to preserve the sound of the infinitive, a number of verbs change orthographically (spelling) in the Preterite Tense. The following changes occur in the “yo” form only:

Verbs that end in -gar change to gu
Verbs that end in -car change c to qu
Verbs that end in -zar change z to c

e.g.

yo jugué (jugar) (to play)
yo busqué (buscar) (to search)
yo empecé (empezar) (to start)

Note: Most common orthographic changing verbs for the Preterite Tense in these categories are:

-gar-car-zar

cegaraparcaralmorzar

colgarbuscarautorizar

jugarclarificarcazar

llegarclasificarcomenzar

pagardestacarcruzar

plegarempacarempezar

regarjustificarforzar

rogarpracticarorganizar

tragarsacarsimbolizar

vagartocartropezarse

Read more about Simple Past Tips in Spanish

Note: For verbs that end in “- aer”“- eer”“- oír”, and “- oer”, the él/ella/usted forms use the ending “yó” (rather than ) and the ellos/ellas/ustedes forms uses the ending “yeron” (rather than ieron). The remaining forms gain a written accent over the letter “i”

creer (to believe)

yo creí
 creíste
él/ella/usted cre
nosotros creímos
vosotros creísteis
ellos/ellas/ustedes creyeron

 

Here is the list of verbs similar to  “creer”:

caer-to fall

leerto read

oírto hear

poseerto own

proveerto provide

roerto gnaw

 

Exceptions to this rule include:

traer-to bring

atraerto attract

distraerto distract

 

Note: Verbs that end in “- uir” change in the same way, but the written accent over the letter “i” only occurs in the “yo form”.

huir (to run away)

yo – huí
 – huiste
él/ella/usted – huyó
nosotros(a) – huimos
vosotros(a) – huisteis
ustedes, ellos(as)  – huyeron

 

Here is the list of verbs similar to  “huir”:

construir-to build

contribuirto contribute

destruirto destroy

fluirto flow

incluirto include

influirto influence

 

Note: The following verbs are irregular in the Preterite and must be memorized:

 

Subject-decir (to say)traer(to bring)ver(to see)

yodijetrajevi

dijistetrajisteviste

usteddijotrajovio

él/elladijotrajovio

nosotros(as)dijimostrajimosvimos

vosotros(as)dijisteistrajisteisvisteis

ustedes/ellos(as)dijerontrajeronvieron

 

Here is the list of verbs similar to  “traer”:

atraer-to attract

detraerto detract

distraerto distract

extraerto extract

maltraerto mistreat

retraerto retract

sustraerto subtract

 

Note: Verbs that end in “-ucir” are irregular and conjugated as follows:

producir (to produce)

yo produje
 produjiste
usted produjo

él/ella produjo
nosotros (as) produjimos
vosotros (as)  produjisteis
ustedes/ ellos(as)   produjeron

 

Other verbs in this category include:

aducir-to adduce

conducirto drive

coproducirto coproduce

deducirto deduct

inducirto induce

introducirto introduce

reducirto reduce

traducirto translate

 

Note: A number of verbs that are irregular in the Preterite follow a particular pattern. While their stems change, they all take the following endings:

-e
-iste
-o

-o
-imos
-isteis
-ieron

 

Here are the verbs, along with their corresponding stem changes:

Infinitive – Stem Change – English Verbs

andaranduvto walk

estarestuvto be

tenertuvto have

cabercupto fit

haberhubto have

poderpudto power

ponerpusto place

sabersupto know

hacerhicto do

quererquisto want

venirvinto come

 

Here are two examples of how this pattern is applied:

Subject-estar (estuv-) / saber (sup-)

yoestuvesupe

estuvistesupiste

ustedestuvosupo

él/ellaestuvosupo

nosotros(as)estuvimossupimos

vosotros(as)estuvisteissupisteis

ustedes/ellos(as)estuvieronsupieron

 

Note: The one exception is the third person singular of “hacer”. As you learned in a previous lesson, the “c” changes to “z” to form “hizo”

Learn more about the Spanish verb tenses

Past Simple Forms of the Irregular Verbs

past simple forms of the irregular verbs

Past Simple Forms of the Irregular Verbs

It’s time to learn how to conjugate the Past Simple forms of the irregular verbs in Spanish. Study Spanish verb conjugations with online lessons. Read about the Spanish grammar rules.

Four of the most common verbs with irregular Preterite forms are: serirdar, and ver.

Irregular Preterite Verb Conjugations

Subject – Ser (to be) Ir (to go)

Yo (I) – fui fui

Tú (You)(Informal) – fuiste fuiste

Usted (You)(Formal) – fue fue

Él/Ella(He/She)  – fue fue

Nosotros(as)(We) – fuimos fuimos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – fuisteis  – fuisteis  

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – fueron fueron

Ellos(as)(They) – fueron fueron

 

 

Subject – Dar (to give)Ver (to see)

Yo (I) – di vi

Tú (You)(Informal) – diste viste

Usted (You)(Formal) – dio vio

Él/Ella(He/She) – dio vio

Nosotros(as)(We) – dimos vimos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – disteis visteis

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – dieron vieron

Ellos(as)(They) – dieron vieron

 

 Note: “Ser” and “ir” have the exact same forms in the Preterite.

 

Conjugate Nosotros in the Present and Past

Conjugate Nosotros in the Present and Past

Conjugate Nosotros in the Present and Past in Spanish

It’s time to learn how to conjugate nosotros in the Present and Past in Spanish. Study Spanish verb conjugations with online lessons. Read about the Spanish grammar rules.

Note: The first person plural (nosotros) endings for regular “-ar” and “-ir” verbs are the same for both the Preterite and Present Tenses. Context clues, such as adverbs like siempre (always) and ayer (yesterday), can help you figure out if a “nosotros” form refers to the past or the present.


Examples:.

Nosotros recibimos la orientación del jefe – We receive guidance from the boss (Present Tense)
Nosotros bailamos juntos – We dance together (Present Tense)
Siempre cocinamos paella los Domingos –We always cook paella on Sundays (Present Tense)


Ayer recibimos la orientación del jefe – Yesterday we received guidance from the boss (Preterite Tense)
Ayer bailamos juntos – Yesterday we danced together (Preterite Tense)
Ayer cocinamos paella –Yesterday we cooked paella (Preterite Tense)

Learn more about the Spanish verb tenses

Accent in the Past Tense

Accent in the Past Tense

Does Preterite have an accent?

It’s time to learn how to use the accent in the Past tense in Spanish. Study Spanish verb conjugations with online lessons. Read about the Spanish grammar rules.

Note:  The first person singular (yo), third person Singular (él, ella), and second person formal singular (usted) preterite forms have tildes (written accents) on the final vowel. Keep in mind that one little tilde can change both the tense and subject of a sentence.

 

Use of the accent in the Past Tense :

With a tilde

Mandó una carta – Sent a letter
Habló con Marta – He spoke with Marta
Cantó muy bien – She sang very well
Dibujó un paisaje muy hermoso – She drew a very beautiful landscape
Envió un paquete – She sent a package 

 

Without a tilde:

Mando una carta – I send a letter
Hablo con Marta – I speak with Marta
Canto muy bien – I sing very good
Dibujo un paisaje muy hermoso – I draw a very beautiful landscape
Envio un paquete – I send a package 

Learn more about the Spanish verb tenses