Past Simple vs Past Participle in Spanish
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how to conjugate the Past Simple vs Past Participle in Spanish. Study Spanish verb conjugations with online lessons. Read about the Spanish grammar rules.
Note: To form the Past participle, simply drop the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) and add “-ado” (for -ar verbs) or “-ido” (for -er, -ir verbs).
habl ar –
ar + ado = hablado
com er –
er + ido = comido
viv ir –
ir + ido = vivido
Note: The following common verbs have irregular Past participles:
abrir (to open) – abierto (open)
cubrir (to cover) – cubierto (covered)
decir (to say) – dicho (said)
escribir (to write) – escrito (written)
freír (to fry) – frito (fried)
hacer (to do) – hecho (done)
morir (to die) – muerto (dead)
poner (to put) – puesto (put)
resolver (to resolve) – resuelto (resolved)
romper (to break) – roto (broken)
ver (to see) – visto (seen)
volver (to return) – vuelto (returned)
Note: The compound verbs based on the irregular verbs inherit the same irregularities.
componer (to compose) – compuesto
describir (to describe) – descrito
devolver (to give back)– devuelto
Note: Most Past participles can be used as adjectives. Like other adjectives, they agree in gender and number with
the nouns that they modify.
La ventana está cerrada. – The window is closed.
Las ventanas están cerradas. – The windows are closed.
El hospital está abierto. – The hospital is open.
Los hospitales están abiertos. – The hospitals are open.
Note: The Past participle can be combined with the verb “ser” to express the passive voice. Use this construction when an action is being described, and introduce the doer of the action with the word “por”
La casa fue registrada en el 1900. – The house was registered in 1900
Note: For “- er” and “- ir” verbs, if the stem ends in a vowel, a written
accent will be required.
creer – creído
oír – oído
Note: This rule does not apply, and no written accent is required for verbs ending in “- uir”. (construir, seguir, influir, distinguir, etc.)
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