How Do You Use Ya in Spanish?

Ya meaning in Spanish

ya in Spanish
When to use Ya in Spanish?. Already, right now, still, enough — these are just four of the dozens of possible translations of the Spanish ya.
Ya, which is usually an adverb but sometimes a conjunction, is one of those words whose meaning depends almost entirely on the context. Sometimes it doesn’t have much of a translatable meaning, becoming a filler word something like pues, adding a slight amount of emotional content to a sentence (although the exact nature of the emotional content may be difficult to determine out of the context).

Key Takeaways

Ya is usually an adverb, very common in speech, whose meaning depends almost on the context. It can express both resignation and surprise, both agreement and disbelief.
– The most common translations of ya include “now,” “still,” and “already.”
Sometimes, ya doesn’t need to be translated, as it can function as a filler word or a word that adds a vague emotional content rather than a denotation.

Most Common Meanings: ‘Now’ and ‘Already’

The most common meanings of ya are “now” and “already.” Often, it signifies a slight amount of impatience, although it sometimes can indicate satisfaction or agreement with the person being spoken to. As you might have guessed, it’s a word you’ll come across more often in informal conversation than you will in formal writing.
When the verb of the sentence is in a past tense, “already” is usually a good translation:
Lo he leído ya. (I’ve already read it.)
El lunes ya lo habré visto. (By Monday I will have already seen it.)
¿Ya compraste tu boleto para la lotería? (Did you already buy your ticket for the lottery?)
No se puede romper lo ya que está roto. (You can’t break what’s already broken.)
When the verb refers to an anticipated action, “now” is a common meaning. If the context or tone of voice suggests impatience, “right now” can also be used:
Ya está aquí. (She’s here now.)
Ya salen. (They’re leaving now.)
 Lo quiero ya. (I want it right now.)
Tienes que estudiar ya. (You need to study right now.)
In some situations, you may be able to use either “already” or “now” in translation, such as when expressing surprise. The first sentence above, for example, might have been translated as “She’s already here.” And the question “¿Sales ya?” could mean either “You’re leaving now?” or “You’re leaving already?” When being rude, “¡Corta ya!” could be translated as either “Shut up now!” or “Shut up already!”

Other Translations for Ya

There are dozens of other ways you could interpret ya. Here are examples of other ways you could interpret ya:
Still, any more (especially when used in the negative):
 Ya no trabaja aquí. (He doesn’t work here any more.) 
Ya no están ganando dinero en la situación actual. (They aren’t making money any more in the current situation.)
To note that a wish has been satisfied: 
¡Ya conseguí el trabajo! (I got the job!)
Ya entiendo las diferencias. (Finally I understand the differences.)
To indicate frustration: 
¡Basta ya! (Enough is enough!)
¡Ya está bien!(That’s plenty!)
¡Ya era hora! (It’s about time!)
¡Vete ya! (Get yourself out of here!)
To indicate emphasis: 
¡Ya lo sé! (I already know that!) 
Es difícil, ya verás.(It’s difficult, you’ll see.) 
Ya puedes empezar a estudiar. (You had better start studying.) 
Él no comió, que ya es decir. (He didn’t eat, which is saying something.) 
Ya me gustaría ser inteligente. (I’d love to be intelligent.)
Later (to indicate something will happen in the indefinite future): 
Ya ocurrirá. (It’ll happen.) 
Ya lo haré. (I’ll get it done.) 
Excelente. Ya hablaremos.(Excellent. We’ll talk later.)
To express agreement or incredulity: 
¡Ya, ya!(Oh, sure!) 
Ya, y el papa es luterano. (Sure, and the pope is Lutheran.) 
Ya, pero es difícil. (Yes, but it’s difficult.)
To call attention to something, especially when followed by que: 
Ya que no está aquí, podemos salir. (Considering that he’s not here, we can leave.) 
Ya que conocemos es fácil, podemos hacerlo. (Since we know it’s easy, we can do it.)
To offer reassurance: 
Ya aprobarás el examen. (You’ll pass the test.) 
Ya sabrás pronto. (You’ll know soon.)
To emphasize a connection between different facts: 
Yo quisiera consultarte sobre este tema, ya que mi perro tiene esta conducta en diferentes situaciones. (I would like to talk to you about this, because my dog acts like this in different situations.) 
La diamante era muy caro, ya lo compré. (It was very expensive, yet I bought it.)

Bajo in Spanish

bajo in Spanish

When to use Bajo in Spanish?. Bajo is a common Spanish preposition, adjective, and adverb that means being low in some way, either figuratively or literally or under something. Also, bajo is used in common idioms usually as a preposition.

How Do You Use Bajo in Spanish?

Bajo Used as an Adjective

As an adjective, common translations include “low” or “short,” and bajo can also be used
to indicate contemptibility or lack of intensity.


Spanish Sentence – English Translation

Mi prima es baja para su edad.My cousin is short for her age.

No es necesario tratar esta enfermedad de bajo riesgo con quimioterapia.It is not necessary to treat this low-risk illness with chemotherapy.

El valle bajo es rico en historia.The low valley is rich in history.

Tenemos problemas de baja calidad de la señal inalámbrica.We have problems with poor quality of the wireless signal.

Alberto cayó en los más bajos pecados durante los dos años.Alberto fell into the basest sins during the two

La clase baja sufre las consecuencias de su reforma política.The lower class is suffering the consequences of
his political reform.

Son capaces de los más bajos actos de violencia.They are capable of the vilest acts of violence.

La presión sanguínea baja puede ser un signo de enfermedad.Low blood pressure can be a sign of sickness.

Bajo as an Adverb

Although more commonly used as an adjective, bajo can be used as an adverb that means
“quietly” or “softly.” 


Si habla bajo, es necesario elevar volumen del micrófono, which means, “If you speak softly, you need to turn up the microphone volume.”

Another way bajo can be used as an adverb is when describing something falling or flying “low” as in “low to the ground.” 

For example: 

El pájaro volaba muy bajo, which means, “The bird was flying very low.”


Bajo as a Preposition

Bajo can serve as a preposition and can almost always be translated as “under.”

Spanish Sentence – English Sentence

El gato está bajo la cama.The cat is under the bed.

La vida bajo el mar es muy difícil.Life undersea is very difficult.

Un barco mercante encalló bajo un puente.The merchant ship ran aground under a bridge.

Los compresores principales están bajo el coche.The main compressors are under the car.

Correr bajo la lluvia es más gratificante que hacerlo en seco.Running in the rain is more rewarding than doing
it when it’s dry.

Bajo Used in Idioms or Borrowed Phrases

Bajo can also be a preposition with an indefinite meaning when it is used as an idiom or expression. Many of these figurative expressions correspond to similar ones in English, some of which are likely calques. A calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word translation.

Spanish Expression – English Translation

bajo arresto under arrest

bajo circunstancias normales under normal circumstances

bajo condición de que under condition that

bajo construcción under construction

bajo control under control

bajo cubierto undercover

bajo fianza on bail

bajo la influencia under the influence

bajo investigación under investigation

bajo juramento under oath

bajo la mesa under the table

bajo ningún concepto in no conceivable way

bajo palabra on parole

bajo peso underweight

bajo presión under pressure

bajo protesta under protest

Words Related to Bajo

Bajar, is a related verb to bajo, which often means “to lower” or “to get down.” Related adverbs are abajo and debajo, which often mean “underneath,” or “down there.”

More about ‘when to use’

Sentences with the word bajo in Spanish

Mi familia ahora vive y trabaja bajo el mismo techo.My family now lives and works under the same roof.
Ayer ella dejó dos pares de zapatos bajo la silla.Yesterday she left two pairs of shoes under the chair.
El procedimiento es realizado bajo un anestésico local.The procedure is performed under a local anesthetic.
Este modelo tiene un costo bajo.This model has a low cost.
Pero ella es la única que reside bajo tu techo.But she is the only one residing under your roof.
Tienden a esconderse bajo las rocas y en la arena.They tend to hide under rocks and in the sand.
Nos encontramos a 20 metros bajo el mar.We are 20 meters under the sea.
Parecía agradable bajo los árboles.It looked nice under the trees.
Ese equipo ellos te lo puede reparar por un bajo costo.That equipment they can repair for a low cost.
El espacio bajo la escalera se utiliza como un almacenamiento.The space under the stairs is used as a storage.
Viven bajo un estrés increíble.They live under incredible stress.
Estos es algo que no podemos aceptar bajo ninguna circunstancia.This is something we cannot accept under any circumstances.
Cualquiera puede venir y saltar, pero bajo su propio riesgo.Anyone can come and jump, but at their own risk.
Es intensamente leal a aquellos bajo su cuidado.He is intensely loyal to those in his care.
Compró unas cadenas de alta calidad y bajo precio.She bought some high-quality, low-priced chains.
Todo está bajo control.It’s all under control.
Vives bajo la ilusión de una gran esperanza y promesa.You live under the illusion of great hope and promise.
Ahora ya sabes quién está trabajando bajo ese seudónimo.Now you know who is working under that pseudonym.
Una pequeña muestra de sangre se examina bajo un microscopio.A small sample of blood is examined under a microscope.
Somos capaces de ver todos los objetos bajo la luz.We are able to see all objects under light.
Él tiene un bajo eléctrico.He has an electric bass.
Dormir bajo las estrellas nunca ha sido una dificultad.Sleeping under the stars has never been a problem.
Esta tendencia indica que la industria está bajo presión.This trend indicates that the industry is under pressure.
Por un precio bajo usted podrá conseguir allí lo que busca.For a low price you can get what you are looking for there.
Puedes sentarte bajo ese árbol.You can sit under that tree.
Hay muchos departamentos diferentes en la institución bajo estudio.There are many different departments in the institution under study.
Todas estas actividades se realizan bajo la supervisión de profesionales.All these activities are carried out under the supervision of professionals.
Debemos cuidar también a los animales que viven bajo el agua.We must also take care of the animals that live under water.
Esta tarea queda bajo tu responsabilidad.This task is your responsibility.
El beneficiario debe estar bajo el cuidado de un médico.The beneficiary must be under the care of a physician.

A in Spanish

How do you use A in Spanish?

a in Spanish

When to use A in Spanish?. The Spanish preposition a is often thought of as the equivalent of “to” — but in fact it has far more uses. A can also be the equivalent of “on,” “at,” “from,” “by” or “in”, among others. And in many cases it is not translated at all.

Rather than learning how to use the Spanish a by its translation, it is probably best to learn the purposes for which a is used. The following list doesn’t cover all its uses, but it does show the uses you are most likely to come across at the beginning stages of learning Spanish. Where a is translated, the translation is indicated in boldface.

Using A To Indicate Motion or Location

Almost any verb indicating motion, and even nouns, can be followed by a before a destination. It can also be used with some other verbs to indicate where the verb’s action takes place.


Llegamos a Argentina. (We arrived in Argentina.)

Se acercó a la casa. (He approached the house.)

Cayó al piso. (It fell to the floor.)

Ofrecemos servicios especializados para facilitar su visita a Disneyland. (We offer specialized services to facility your visit to Disneyland.)

Esa es la puerta al baño. (That is the door to the bathroom. Al is a contraction of a + el, usually meaning “to the.”)

Me siento a la mesa. (I am sitting at the table.)


Using A Before an Infinitive

A is often used to connect a verb with an infinitive that follows. This use is especially common when indicating the start of an action. In these cases, a is not translated separately from the infinitive.

Empezó a salir. (She began to leave.)

Entró a hablar contigo. (He came in to talk to you.)

Él se negó a nadar. (He refused to swim.)

He venido a estudiar. (I have come to study.)

Comenzó a bailar. (She began to dance.)


The most common usage following this patter is using ir a + infinitive” to form the a type of future tense known as the periphrastic future.


Si no jugamos bien no vamos a ganar. (If we don’t play well we aren’t going to win.)

Voy a cantar. (I am going to sing.)

Tenemos que aceptar que tal vez no nos vayan a entender. (We have to accept that sometimes they aren’t going to understand us.)

Using A To Indicate Manner or Method

Numerous expressions begin with a followed by a noun to indicate how something is done. The phrase starting with a functions as an adverb and is sometimes translated as one.


Vamos a pie. (We are going on foot.)

Hay que fijarlo a mano. (It is necessary to fix it by hand. Note that a mano also could have been translated as “manually,” an adverb.)

Estoy a dieta. (I am on a diet.)

Escribo a lápiz. (I am writing with a pencil.)

Andan a ciegas. (They are walking blindly.)

Llegamos a tiempo. (We are arriving on time.)

La internet evoluciona a cada instante. (The Internet is changing constantly.)

Lee el libro a escondidas. (She is studying the book covertly.)


Introducing an Object With A

Before a direct object, a is used before name or noun that represents a person in a usage known as the “personal a.” The preposition in these cases usually is not translated. A can also introduce an indirect object.


Conozco a Pedro. (I know Peter. In this and the next two examples, the name functions as a direct object.)

Encontré a Fido. (I found Fido.)

Veré a María. (I will see Mary.)

Le doy una camisa a Jorge. (I am giving a shirt to George. In this and the next three examples, “George” is an indirect object. Note how the translation of avaries with the verb.)

Le compro una camisa a Jorge. (I am buying a shirt for George.)

Le robo una camisa a Jorge. (I am taking a shirt from George.)

Le pongo la camisa a Jorge. (I am putting the shirt on George.)


Using A in Time Expressions

A is sometimes used in specifying times or days. 

Salimos a las cuatro. (We are leaving at four.)

A la una de la noche escuchamos maullar. (At 1 in the morning we heard meowing.)

Estamos a lunes. (Today is Monday. Literally, we are at Monday.)


More about ‘when to use’


How Do You Use De in Spanish?

De in Spanish

de in Spanish

When to use de in Spanish?.De is one of the most common prepositions in Spanish. Although it usually is translated as “of” and sometimes as “from,” its use is far more versatile than the translation might suggest. In fact, in certain contexts, de can be translated not only as “of” or “from,” but as “with,” “by,” or “in,” among other words, or not translated at all.

One reason de is used more often than its equivalents in English is because the rules of English grammar let us use all sorts of nouns and phrases as adjectives. In that way, Spanish isn’t quite so flexible. While in English we may say,
“a nine-year-old girl,” in Spanish that becomes 
una niña de nueve años or, literally, “a girl of nine years.” Similarly, in English, we may say something like “a silver ring,” using what is normally a noun, “silver,” as an adjective. But in Spanish we have to say un anillo de plata, or “a ring of silver.”

De also is used in Spanish to indicate possession.
We may talk about “John’s shoe” in English, but in Spanish it’s 
el zapato de Juan, or “the shoe of John.”

– Following are some of the most common uses of de:

Using De for Possession

Possession or belonging, either physical or figurative, as indicated by “‘s” in English is almost always translated using de followed by the possessor in Spanish:

el carro de Lucy (Lucy’s car)
la clase del Sr. Gómez (Mr. Gomez’s class)
las esperanzas del pueblo (the people’s hopes)
¿De quién es este lápiz? (Whose pencil is this?)

Using De for Causation

Following an adjective, de can be used to indicate a cause.
Estoy feliz de nuestra amistad. (I am happy with our friendship. The word following de indicates the reason for happiness.)
Está cansada de jugar. (She is tired of playing.)

Using De To Indicate Origin

Often translated as “from,” de can be used to indicate the origin of a person or thing. She same construction is used to state that a person is a member of a group.

Soy de Arkansas. (I’m from Arkansas.)
Mi madre es de la India. (My mother is from India.)
Es la chica más inteligente de la clase.(She is the most intelligent girl in the class.) 

Using De With Characteristics

When an object or person has characteristics (including contents or what something is made of) that are stated as a noun or infinitive, de is often used to show the relationship. It generally is not possible in Spanish, as it is in English, to use nouns as adjectives.

corazón de oro (heart of gold.)

el tranvía de Boston (the Boston streetcar)

una casa de huéspedes (a guesthouse)

una canción de tres minutos (a three-minute song)

una casa de $100,000 (a $100,000 house)

una taza de leche (a cup of milk)

la mesa de escribir (the writing table)

una casa de ladrillo (a brick house)

jugo de manzana (apple juice)

una máquina de escribir, (a typewriter, literally a writing machine)

Using De in Comparisons

In some comparisons, de is used where we would use “than” in English.

Tengo menos de cien libros. (I have fewer than 100 books.)
Gasta más dinero de lo que gana. (He spends more money than he earns.)

Idioms Using De

De is used in many common idiomatic phrases, many of which function as adverbs.
de antemano (previously)
de cuando en cuando (from time to time)
de memoria (by memory)
de moda (in style)
de nuevo (again)
de pronto (immediately)
de prisa (hurriedly)
de repente, (suddenly)
de todas formas (in any case)
de veras (truly)
de vez en cuando (from time to time)

Verbal Expressions Requiring De

Many verbs are followed by de and often an infinitive to form expressions.
There is no logic to which verbs are followed by 
de. The verbs need either to be memorized or learned as you come across them.

Acabo de salir. (I have just left)
Nunca cesa de comer. He never stops eating.
Trataré de estudiar. (I will try to study.)
Me alegro de ganar. (I am happy to win.)
Se olvidó de estudiar. (He forgot to study.)
Romeo se enamoró de Julieta. (Romeo fell in love with Juliet.)

You will also occasionally see other uses of de, although those above are the most common. There are also many expressions and verb combinations using de that were not listed above.

Keep in mind also that when de is followed by the article el, meaning “the,” they form the contraction del. Thus los árboles del bosque is the equivalent of saying los árboles de el bosque (“the trees of the forest”). But no contraction is used for de él, which means “his.”

Sentences with the word de in Spanish

¡Hora de almorzar!Lunch time!
Quiero un poco de jugo.I want some juice.
Vamos de paseo.Let’s go for a walk.
¿De quién es eso?Whose is that?
A partir de ahora mando yo.From now on I rule.
Eso está de más.That’s too much.
Estoy feliz de la vida.I am happy with life.
¿Quieres un trozo de pastel?Do you want a piece of cake?
Hoy es día de fiesta.Today is a holiday.
Feliz día de San Valentín.Happy Valentines Day.
Estoy enamorada de ti.I’m in love with you.
Quiero formar parte de este proyecto.I want to be part of this project.
Vas de mal en peor.You go from bad to worse.
Es momento de mirar adelante.It is time to look forward.
No soy de ese tipo de personas.I’m not that type of person.
Este regalo es de parte de la familia.This gift is from the family.
Vengo de parte de su esposo.I come from her husband.
¿Es de verdad lo que me cuentas?Is it true what you tell me?
No sé de qué hablas.I do not know what are you talking about.
No entiendo nada de la materia.I don’t understand anything about the matter.
¡Estás de madre!You are a mother!
Necesito comprar algo de café.I need to buy some coffee.
Estas pantuflas son de tu hermana.These slippers belong to your sister.
Ponte a hacer las oraciones de la tarea.Start doing the homework sentences.
Estos temas son parte de mi trabajo.These topics are part of my job.
¿De quién es esto?Whose is this?
Dejemos de molestar a los vecinos.Let’s stop bothering the neighbors.
Ese perrito es de mi vecina.That puppy belongs to my neighbor.
Vengo de la ferretería.I’m from the hardware store.
Me gustan las aplicaciones de juegos en línea.I like online gaming apps.
El libro de Juan.Juan’s book.
La casa de mi padre.My father’s house.
El volumen de la música.The volume of the music.
Los árboles de mi jardín.The trees in my garden.
El volumen de la música.The volume of the music.
Las puertas de la casa.The doors of the house.
Un hombre de valor.A man of value.
Los condimentos de la comida.Food condiments.
Es una decisión de gran trascendencia.It is a decision of great importance.
Parece un problema de fácil solución.It seems like an easy-to-solve problem.
Compré una nueva mesa de cocina.I bought a new kitchen table.
Es una servilleta de usar y tirar.It is a throwaway napkin.
Toma este libro de matemáticas.Take this math book.
Cruza por el puente de hierro.Cross over the iron bridge.
La casa posee un techo de madera.The house has a wooden roof.
El niño tiene un oso de peluche.The boy has a teddy bear.
Necesito un vaso de agua.I need a glass of water.
Voy a comprar una botella de vino.I’m going to buy a bottle of wine.
Tomasa tiene una caja de zapatos.Tomasa has a shoe box.
Trajo una maleta de ropa sucia.She brought a suitcase of dirty clothes.
Felipe es un hijo de buena familia.Felipe is a son of a good family.
De esto se deduce que tenías razón.From this it follows that you were right.
Mira el camino de mi casa al pueblo.Look at the road from my house to town.
Ya estoy cansado de tanto andar.I’m tired of walking so much.
De esto se deduce que tenías razón.From this it follows that you were right.
No sabes admirar la naturaleza en el camino de este a oeste.You don’t know how to admire nature on the way from east to west.
Carlos está cansado de tanto andar.Carlos is tired from walking so much.
Estoy contento de la buena noticia.I am happy about the good news.
Hay que levantarse de un salto.You have to jump up.
Lo hizo de buena gana.He did it willingly.

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En in Spanish

How Do You Use En in Spanish?

en in Spanish

When to Use En in Spanish?

If you were told that en is a Spanish preposition and were asked what it means, you most likely would guess “in” or “on.” And you’d be right in both cases. But en can also be translated as “at,” “about,” “by,” “on top of,” “upon,” “inside of,” and other ways, so its use isn’t as straightforward as it may appear.

The Spanish Preposition “en”

           The Spanish preposition en frequently means “in” or “on” when referring to physical locations

           En can also be used to mean “in” in certain time expressions.

           En is so used in phrases and following certain verbs with translations that aren’t always predictable. These idioms and verb phrases must be learned individually.


Fortunately, when en doesn’t mean “on” or “in,” you can usually tell by the context what is meant. Like some other prepositions, en can seem quite versatile to the foreigner. Here are the most common uses:

Using En for Locations and Meaning ‘In’

When it is used in describing locations, en can mean “in” or “inside of.” As in the third and fourth examples here, en can also be used this way figuratively.

El dinero está en la caja. (The money is in the box.) Vivo en España. (I live in Spain.)

La crisis sólo está en la mente de las personas. (The crisis is only in the minds of people.)

Hay cien cantavos en un dólar. (There are 100 cents in a dollar.)

En in Time Expressions

En can be used in time expressions much as it is in English with periods of time other than days of the week.

Llegamos por tren en una hora. (We arrive by train in one hour.)

Trabajaré en el verano. (I will work in the summer.)

Esperan aprobar la ley en dos semanas. (They hope to pass the law in two weeks.)

– With days of the week, a preposition isn’t needed: 

Llegamos el lunes. (We arrive on Tuesday.)

Using En for Locations and Meaning ‘On’

En is frequently used to meet “on” in the sense of meaning “on top of” or “placed on.”

El dinero está en la mesa. (The money is on the table.)

Fijó los carteles en la pared. (He put the posters on the wall. Note that the preposition a also could have been used here: Fijó los carteles a la pared.)

Las manchas en la cara pueden aparecer por diversos motivos. (Blemishes on the face can appear for various reasons.)

Using En in Expressing Values

Although not particularly common, en is sometimes used instead of por when referring to costs or similar values:

Vendió el carro en $2.000. (He sold the car for $2,000.)

Compró el móvil en un buen precio. (She bought the cellphone for a good price.)

Tenemos el cojín ideal para ti en sólo $349.00 pesos. (We have the ideal cushion for you for only 349 pesos.)

En in Miscellaneous Expressions

Numerous phrases or idioms use en. Most of these need to be learned as phrases rather than simply translating word for word:

·en broma, as a joke

en busca de, in search of

en cambio, on the other hand

en casa, at home

en español, in Spanish

en honor de, in honor of

en la actualidad, presently

en la radio, on (the) radio; en la televisión, on (the) television

en lugar de, instead of, in place of

en secreto, in secret

en seguida, immediately

en serio, seriously

en todas partes, everywhere

en vez de, instead of

en vilo, anxiously awaiting

en vista de, in view of

en vivo, live (as in live TV)

en voz alta, in a loud voice; en voz baja, in a soft voice.

Using En With Certain Verbs

When used with many verbs, en is translated as “in” or “on”:

ayudar en algo, to help in doing something

competer en, to compete in

concentrarse en, to concentrate on

concurrir en, to concur in

confiar en, to trust in; creer en, to believe in; esperar en, to trust in

empeñarse en, to persist in; insistir en, to insist on

intervenir en, to participate in

persistir en, to persist in

reflejar en, to reflect on

resultar en, to result in.

But it can have other translations as well:

actuar en consecuencia, to act accordingly

adentrarse en, to get into

advertir en, to notice

aplicarse en, to devote oneself to

caerle en suerte, to get lucky

coincidir en que, to agree that

comprometerse en, to get involved with

concurrir en, to meet at

consentir en, to agree to

consistir en, to be composed of

convenir en, to agree to

convertir(se) en, to change into

equivocarse en, to be mistaken about

extenderse en, to spread over

fijarse en, to notice

ingresar en, to be admitted to

inscribirse en, to register for

juntarse en, to meet at

molestarse en, to bother by

pensar en, to think about

quedar en que, to agree that

reparar en, to notice

vacilar en, to hesitate to.


Sentences with the word en in Spanish

Ella está en la editorial.She is in the editorial.
Se sentó en la silla.She sat down on the chair.
Deja el abrigo en la cama.She leaves the coat on the bed.
Las mesas están colocadas en ángulo.The tables are set at an angle.
Dio la vuelta a Venezuela en dos meses.She went around Venezuela in two months.
Se ha especializado en derecho administrativo.She has specialized in administrative law.
Pusimos los regalos en círculo.We put the gifts in a circle.
La compañía teatral fue de pueblo en pueblo repitiendo su espectáculo.The theatrical company went from town to town repeating their show.
En esa tienda es donde venden varios modelos de vestidos.In that store is where they sell various models of dresses.
Nos mudamos en febrero.We moved in February.
Este auto está en el taller hace un mes.This car has been in the shop for a month.
Su uso es poco frecuente en España.Its use is rare in Spain.
Tu padre está ahora en una reunión.Your father is now in a meeting.
Ese hombre se aburre en la sala de espera.That man is bored in the waiting room.
En varias playas está prohibida la acampada.Camping is prohibited on several beaches.
Hemos pasado estas vacaciones en Barcelona.We have spent these holidays in Barcelona.
Ella puso las flores que le regalaste en ese jarrón.She put the flowers you gave her in that vase.
Ahora estoy en la parada esperando el transporte.Now I am at the stop waiting for the transport.
¿En dónde estuviste toda la noche?Where were you all night?
Nos encontramos en la playa.We meet at the beach.
Ya empezaron las reparaciones en la casa.Repairs have already started on the house.
Hay un nido en ese árbol.There is a nest in that tree.
¿En dónde te encuentras ahora?Where are you now?
Colocó la carga en su caballo.She placed the load on her horse.
Él estaba en esa dirección.He was in that direction.
Se ha convertido en el líder de esta organización.He has become the leader of this organization.
En el siglo XIX se modernizó el proceso de edición.In the 19th century, the editing process was modernized.
Eso explica la escasez de valles en la zona.That explains the scarcity of valleys in the area.
Se le ve la alegría en su rostro.He sees the joy on his face.
La película empezó en cuanto llegamos.The movie started as soon as we arrived.
La encontré en la estación.I found her at the station.
Siempre la veo en el mismo lugar.I always see her in the same place.
Lo puse todo en su sitio.I put everything in her place.
¿En dónde estuviste ayer?Where were you yesterday?
Él nació en Madrid.He was born in Madrid.
Usted ha dado en el clavo.You have hit the nail on the head.
Ocurrió igual que en las películas.It happened just like in the movies.
Eso mismo pone en todos los libros.It says the same thing in all the books.
Ayer estuvimos en el bar.Yesterday we were at the bar.
No estaba en la sala ni en el cuarto.He was not in the room or in the room.
Tomé asiento en la guagua.I took a seat on the bus.
En lo mínimo está el cambio.The minimum is the change.
No tardé mucho en recuperarme.It didn’t take me long to recover.
El fue el primero en hablar.He was the first to speak.
Los imprimieron en Sevilla.They were printed in Seville.
Emergimos en un barrio comercial.We emerged into a commercial district.
Estuvimos ayer en su casa.We were at his house yesterday.
Se encontraba en la habitación.He was in the room.
Nos gustó mucho la estancia en el hotel.We really liked the stay at the hotel.
Lo había puesto en el extremo de la mesa.He had put it on the end of the table.
¿En dónde nos encontramos?Where we are?
La pareja vive en un castillo.The couple lives in a castle.
Nos imitó en el recorrido.He imitated us on the tour.
Lo acostumbraba en su tierra.He was used to it in his land.
Eso ocurre hoy en día.That happens today.
Ha dado usted en el clavo.He has hit the nail on the head.
En fin, así es el mundo.After all, this is the world.
Muchas veces en la vida.Many times in life.
Lo recuerdo en mis días de juventud.I remember it in my younger days.
Y todo aquello iba en prosa.And all that was in prose.

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Que in Spanish

How do you use Que in Spanish?

que in Spanish

When to Use Que in Spanish?

Relative pronouns are pronouns that are used to introduce a clause that provides more information about a noun. Thus in the phrase “the man who is singing,” the relative pronoun is “who”; the clause “who is singing” provides further information about the noun “man.” In the Spanish equivalent, el hombre que canta, the relative pronoun is queue.

Que Tops List of Spanish Relative Pronouns

Common relative pronouns in English include “that,” “which,” “who,” “whom” and “whose” (although these words also have other uses). In Spanish, by far the most common relative pronoun is que.
As can be seen in the following sentences, it usually means “that,” “which” or “who.”

Los libros que son importantes en nuestra vida son todos aquellos que nos hacen ser mejores, que nos enseñan a superarnos. (The books that are important in our lives are all those that make us be better, which teach us to improve ourselves.)

Compré el coche en que íbamos. (I bought the car in which we rode.)

El politeísmo es la creencia de que hay muchos dioses. (Polytheism is the belief that there are many gods.)

Mi hermano es el hombre que salió. (My brother is the man who left.)


In some cases, que isn’t translated as a relative pronoun in English because the two languages structure the sentence differently:

Necesitamos la firma de la persona que ayuda al paciente. (We need the name of the person helping the patient.)

No conozco a la niña que duerme en la cama. (I don’t know the girl sleeping in the bed.)

Other Relative Pronouns

If you’re a beginning Spanish student, you likely won’t need to use the other relative pronouns of Spanish, but you certainly will come across them in writing and speech. Here they are with examples of their usage:

– quien, quienes — who, whom — A common mistake by English speakers is to use quien when que should be used. Quien is most commonly used following a preposition, as in the first example below. It can also be used in what grammarians call a nonrestrictive clause, one separated by commas from the noun it describes, as in the second example. In that second example, que also could be used instead of quien.


Es el médico de quien le dije. (He is the doctor whom I told you about.)

Conozco a Sofía, quien tiene dos coches. (I know Sophia, who has two cars.)


– el cual, la cual, lo cual, los cuales, las cuales — which, who, whom — This pronoun phrase must match the noun it refers to in both number and gender. It is used in formal writing more often than in speech.


Rebeca es la mujer con la cual vas a viajar. (Rebeca is the woman with whom you are going to travel.)

Conozca los principales riesgos a los cuales se enfrentan las organizaciones en la era digital. (Know the main risks which organizations are facing in the digital age.)


– el que, la que, lo que, los que, las que — which, who, whom — This pronoun phrase must match the noun it refers to in both number and gender. It is often interchangeable with el cual but is somewhat more informal in usage.


Rebeca es la mujer con la que vas a viajar. (Rebeca is the woman with whom you are going to travel.)

Hay un restaurante en los que los meseros son robots. (There is a restaurant in which the waiters are robots.)


– cuyo, cuya, cuyos, cuyas whose — This pronoun functions something like an adjective and must match the noun it modifies in both number and gender. It is used more in writing than in speech. It normally isn’t used in questions, where de quién is used instead, as in ¿De quién es esta computadora? for “Whose computer is this?”


Es la profesora cuyo hijo tiene el coche. (She is the teacher whose son has the car.)

El virus se autodistribuye a los contactos del usuario cuya computadora ha sido infectada. (The virus spreads itself to the contacts of the user whosecomputer has been infected.)


– donde — where — The Spanish and English words as relative pronouns are used in much the same way.


Voy al mercado donde se venden manzanas. (I’m going to the market where apples are sold.)

En la ciudad donde nosotros vivimos existen muchas iglesias. (There are many churches in the city where we live.)

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Lo in Spanish

How do you use Lo in Spanish?

lo in Spanish

When to use lo in Spanish?. Lo is one of those words that doesn’t always have a clear definition — and it can function in at least three different ways, as a subject pronoun, object pronoun, or definite article. When you run across the word in a sentence and don’t know what it means, you often need to figure out first how it is being used.

Here, in rough order of how common they are, are the ways that lo can be used:

Using Lo as a Masculine Direct-Object Pronoun

As a direct object, lo can be translated as either “him” or “it.” The feminine equivalent is la.

¿Pablo? No lo vi. (Pablo? I didn’t see him.)
El coche es muy caro. Quiero comprarlo. (The car is very expensive. I want to buy it.)

Dámelo. (Give it to me.)
No creo que lo hayas conocido. (I don’t think you’ve met him.)

Note that in the above sentences where lo means “him,” referring to a person, it would be very common in some areas, particularly in Spain, to use le instead of lo. The use
of le as a direct object pronoun is known as leísmo.

Using Lo as a Neuter Definite Article

The definite articles in Spanish, typically el and la when singular, are the equivalent of the English “the.” Lo can be used as a neuter definite article before an adjective to make an abstract noun. For example, lo importante can be translated as “the important thing,” “that which is important,” or “what is important.”

Lo bueno es que hemos sido más listos. (The good thing is that we have been more clever.)
Lo barato sale caro. (What seems cheap ends up expensive.)
Lo mejor es que me voy a casa. (The best thing is that I’m going home.)
Lo mío es tuyo. (What is mine isyours.)
El entrenador se especializa en lo imposible. (The coach specializes in the impossible.)

Lo as a Neuter Direct-Object Pronoun

Lo can be used as an object pronoun to refer to something abstract, to an unnamed activity or situation, or to a previous statement. Used in this way, lo is usually translated as “it,” sometimes as “that”:

No podemos hacerlo. (We can’t do it.)
No lo comprendo. (I don’t understand that.)
Mi religión no lo prohibe, pero cada vez que lo hago, le doy las gracias al animal por darme vida. (My religion doesn’t prohibit it, but every time I do it, I give thanks to the animal for giving me life.)

Using Lo With Ser and Estar

It is common when answering questions to use lo before the verbs for “to be” to refer to a preceding noun or adjective. When used in this way, lo has neither number nor gender.

¿Es nueva tu computadora?. —No lo es. (“Is your computer new?” “It isn’t.”)
¿Estaban felices? —Sí, lo estaban. (“Were they happy?” “Yes, they were.”)

Using Lo Que and Lo Cual

The phrases lo que and lo cual serve as relative pronouns usually meaning “that,” “what”, or “that which”:

La marihuana: Lo que los padres deben saber. (Marijuana: What parents ought to know.)
Mis padres me daban todo lo que yo necesitaba. (My parents gave me everything that I needed.)
No puedo decidir lo que es mejor. (I can’t decide what is better.)
No todo lo que brilla es oro. (Not everything that shines is gold.)

Using Lo De

The phrase lo de can be translated differently depending on the context, butgenerally means something like “the matter concerning”:

Los senadores republicanos fueron informados sobre lo de la CIA. (The Republican
senators were informed about the CIA matter.)

Lo de que las niñas japonesas se perdieron no era una mentira. (The storyabout the Japanese girls getting lost wasn’t a lie.)

Lo de Castro es todo pretextos y mentiras según sus enemigos. (Castro’s way of doing things is all pretexts and lies, according to his enemies.)

Using Lo in Phrases

Phrases using lo, not necessarily in a way that seems intuitive, include:

a lo largo de, throughout
a lo lejos, in the distance
a lo loco, like crazy
a lo mejor, probably
lo sabe todo, he/she knows it all
por lo general, generally
por lo menos, at least
por lo pronto, for now·
por lo tanto, as a result
por lo visto, apparently

Using Lo as an Indirect Object

In some regions, you may occasionally hear the use of lo as an indirect object instead of le. However, this practice, known as loísmo, is considered substandard and should be avoided by those learning the language.

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Le in Spanish

How Do You Use Le in Spanish?

Le in Spanish

When to use le in Spanish? Although le is typically used as an indirect object pronoun in Spanish, it doesn’t always seem that way to English speakers: The two languages don’t always treat pronouns alike, so there are some situations where an English verb takes a direct object but the Spanish equivalent uses an indirect object.

In many cases, it doesn’t make a difference whether an object is direct or indirect, because in the first and second persons the two types of pronouns are identical. Me, meaning “me,” for example, can be either a direct or indirect object. 

But the difference matters in the third person, where in standard Spanish le (meaning him, her, you, or
less commonly it) is used as the indirect object but 
lo or la is the direct object. (Be aware that there are regional variations in this usage.)

Verbs of Pleasing and Displeasing

Verbs used to indicate that a thing or action pleases someone frequently take le.
The most common such verb is 
gustar, which is often used in translating sentences where we use a different word order to indicate liking:


A ella le gusta la comida china. (Chinese food pleases her. This is a literal translation. In real life, the translation “she likes Chinese food” would usually be used.)

La verdad es que no les gusta la verdad. (The truth is that the truth doesn’t please them. The truth is they don’t like the truth.)

Descubrieron que les gustaban las mismas cosas. (They discovered that the same things pleased them. They
discovered they liked the same things.)

In addition, various verbs similar in usage and meaning to gustar or the opposite are used with le or les. Some examples:


agradar: En su niñez, una de las cosas que más le agradaban era disfrazarse.(In your childhood, one of the things you liked the most was dressing up in costumes.)

apasionar: Le apasionaba ser actriz. (She loved being an actress.)

complacer: Le complacerá ayudarte. (She will like helping you.)

desagradar: Le desagradaba irse a su cuarto. (He hated going to his room.)

disgustar: Le disgustó mucho la película y se retiró a los 10 minutos. (He hated the film and left after 10 minutes.)

encantar: A mi hija le encanta la música reggae. (My daughter adores reggae music.)

placer: Sé que mis comentarios no le placen a mucha gente. (I know my comments don’t please many people.)

Verbs Using Le When the Object is a Person

A few verbs commonly use le when its object is a person but not when the object is a thing or concept. For example, with creer, “No lo creo” means “I don’t believe it,” but “No le creo” can mean “I don’t believe him” or “I don’t believe her.”

In this cases, you can think of what a person believes (or not) as being the direct object, but the person being affected by that belief (or lack) being the indirect object. But in a simple sentence such as “No le creo” the direct object isn’t stated.


The same goes for entender (to understand): Lo entiendo. (I understand it.) Le entiendo. (I understand him/her.)

Enseñar (to teach) works in a similar way. The subject being taught is represented by a direct object: 

Lo enseñé en la escuela católica. (I taught it in the Catholic school.)

But the person taught is the indirect object: Le enseñé en la escuela católica. (Itaught him/her in the Catholic school.)

Similarly for obedecer (to obey): 

¿La ley? La obedezco. (The law? I obey it.)

But: Le obedezco a mi madre. (I obey my mother.)


Other Verbs

A few other verbs use le for reasons that aren’t immediately apparent:

Importar (to matter, to be important): A los internautas les importa la seguridad.(Security is important to Internet users.)

Interesar (to interest)No les interesaba acumular ni tener propiedades. (They weren’t interested in accumulating nor
having property.)

Preocupar (to worry a person): La futura le preocupa. (The future worries him/her.)


Recordar (when it means “to remind,” but not when it means “to remember”): 

Voy a recordarla(I am going to remember her.) 

Voy a recordarlo. (I am going to remember him.) 

Voy a recordarle. (I am going to remind him/her.)


Key Takeaways

Le and les are the indirect object pronouns of Spanish, but they are sometimes used in situations where English uses direct objects.

– Verbs used to indicate that something gives pleasure or displeasure often use le.

– Several verbs use le when the object of a verb is a person but lo or la when the object is a thing.

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El and La in Spanish

How Do You Use El and La in Spanish?

El and La in Spanish

When to use el and la in Spanish?. El is the singular, masculine definite article, meaning “the,” in Spanish and is used to define masculine nouns, while la is the feminine version. But there are a few instances where el is used with feminine nouns.

Gender in Words

An interesting thing about Spanish is the fact that words have gender. A word is considered male or female, depending on what the word refers to and how it ends. A general rule of thumb is if a word ends in -o, it is most likely masculine, and if a word ends in -a, it is most likely feminine. If the word is describing a female person, then the word is feminine and vice versa.

Definite Articles for Nouns

In most cases, el is used for masculine nouns and la is used for feminine nouns. Another rule supersedes this, and that is when the feminine noun is singular and starts with a stressed a- or ha- sound, like the words aguameaning
water, or 
hambremeaning hunger. The reason the definite article becomes el is mostly a matter of how it sounds to say la gua and la hambre and the clunkiness of the “double-a” sounds repeating. It sounds more definitive to say el agua and el hambre.

There is a similar grammar rule in English about the use of the “an” versus”a.” An English speaker would say, “an apple” instead of ” a apple.” The two repeating “double-a” sounds are too close to each other and sound too repetitive. The English rule states that “an,” which is an indefinite article modifying the noun, comes before nouns that have a vowel sound at the beginning of the word and “a” comes before consonant-starting nouns.

Feminine Words that Use the Masculine Article

Notice the substitution of el for la takes place when it comes immediately before words starting with an “a” sound.


Feminine Nouns – English Translation

el agua the water

el ama de
the housewife

el asma asthma

el arca the ark

el hambre hunger

el hampa the underworld

el arpa the harp

el águila the eagle


If the feminine noun is modified by adjectives that follow the noun in the sentence, the feminine noun retains the masculine article.


Feminine Nouns – English Translation

el agua purificada purified water

el arpa paraguaya the Paraguayan harp

el hambre excesiva excessive hunger


Reverting Back to the Feminine Article

The thing to remember is that words that are feminine remain feminine. The reason why this matters is if the word becomes plural, the word goes back to using the feminine definite article.
In this case, the definite article becomes 
las. It sounds fine to say las arcas since the “s” in las breaks up the “double a” sound.

Another example is las amas de casa.

If a word intervenes between the definite article and the noun, la is used.


Feminine Nouns English Translation

la pura agua pure water

la insoportable hambre the unbearable hunger

la feliz ama de casa the happy housewife

la gran águila the great eagle


If the accent of the noun is not on the first syllable, the definite article la is used with singular feminine nouns when they begin with a- or ha-.


Feminine Nouns English Translation

la habilidad the skill

la audiencia the audience

la asamblea the meeting


The substitution of el for la does not occur before adjectives that begin with a stressed a- or ha-, the rule only applies to nouns, despite the “double-a” sound. 


Feminine Nouns English Translation

la alta muchacha the tall girl

la agria experiencia the bitter experience

Exceptions to the Rule 

There a few exceptions to the rule that el substitutes for la immediately before a noun that begins with a stressed a- or ha-.
Note, the letters of the alphabet, called 
letras in Spanish, which is a feminine noun, are all feminine.

Feminine Nouns English Translation

la árabe the Arabic woman

La Haya The Hague

la a the letter A

la hache the letter H

la haz uncommon word for face, not to be confused with el haz, meaning shaft or beam

Feminine Words Can Use the Masculine Indefinite Article

Most grammarians consider it correct for feminine words to take the masculine indefinite article un instead
una under the same conditions where la is changed to el. It is for the same reason la is changed to el, to eliminate the “double-a” sound of the two words together. 


Feminine Nouns English Translation

un águila an eagle

un ama de casa a housewife


Although this is widely considered correct grammar, this usage is not universal. In everyday spoken language, this rule is irrelevant, due to elision, which is the omission of sounds, especially as words flow together. In pronunciation, there is no difference between un águila and una águila.

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Sentences with the article el in Spanish

Me gustó mucho el concierto.I really liked the concert.
El hombre llevaba la cabeza vendada.The man had his head bandaged.
Recuerda que el piso está sucio..Remember that the floor is dirty..
Me gusta el arroz.I like rice.
El perro es el mejor amigo del hombre.The dog is man’s best friend.
Yo prefiero el Picasso de la primera época.I prefer the Picasso of the first period.
Entre los métodos de separación de una mezcla podemos señalar el cribar.Among the methods of separation of a mixture we can point out the screening.
Para nosotros es un honor el que haya aceptado nuestra invitación a este acto.It is an honor for us that you have accepted our invitation to this event.
Escoge el que más te guste.Choose the one you like the most.
Mañana viene a cenar con el abrigo que le regalé.Tomorrow he comes to dinner with the coat I gave him.
No sabemos como va a ser con el tema de la mudanza.We don’t know how she is going to be with the subject of the move.
Utiliza el mármol en la construcción.She uses marble in construction.
Ya sabes el objetivo de la conferencia.You already know the purpose of the conference.
Debes tener terminado el pavo de la cena para las 9 pm.You must have finished the turkey for dinner by 9 pm.
El día de tu cumpleaños se acerca.The day of your birthday is approaching.
Prepara el buffet del cumpleaños.Prepare the birthday buffet.
No te imaginas el espectáculo bailable que se realizó anoche.You can’t imagine the dance show that took place last night.
Vas por el camino correcto.You are on the right path.
Léster tiene el carro roto.Lester has a broken car.
Necesitas más imágenes que ver para el próximo fin de semana.You need more images to see for next weekend.
Por fin, el domingo tú vienes.Finally, on Sunday you come.
El traje gris está en el armario.The gray suit is in the closet.
¿No tienes el televisor roto?Don’t you have a broken TV?
¿Dónde está el dinero del mercado?Where is the money in the market?
El día de hoy fue maravilloso.Today was wonderful.
Tómate el helado, ahora mismo.Have the ice cream, right now.
Hoy el sol hoy está caliente.Today the sun is hot today.
Las estrellas y el cielo confluyen de verás.The stars and the sky really come together.
¡Recuerda el paraguas!Remember the umbrella!
No te olvides de llevar el gorro.Don’t forget to wear the hat.

Ser and Estar in Spanish | SpanishtoGo

How Do You Use Ser and Estar in Spanish?

learn spanish for dummies

The general rule of permanent/temporary will get you in trouble (sooner than) later.

– Ser is used to describe a more or less permanent attribute of something. 
“Ella es bella” means “She’s a pretty woman (all the time).” 
– Estar typically describes a passing characteristic. 
“Ella está bella,” “She looks pretty (today).”

This is why you “ser” from a place but “estar” in it, as well as “ser loco” meaning you are a mentally ill person, but “estar loco” meaning you’re acting crazy, often said jokingly.

ser – “Ellos son delgados” means “They are thin” (all the time)
estar – “Ellos están delgados” means “They look thin” (today)

ser– “Nosotros somos gordos” means “We are fat” (all the time)

estar – “Nosotros estamos gordos” means “We look fat” (today)