When to Use Reflexive Verbs in Spanish

When to Use Reflexive Verbs in Spanish?

Let’s learn how and when to use reflexive verbs in the Spanish language.

When to Use Reflexive Verbs in Spanish

Using Me, Te, Se, Nos, Os in Spanish

Note: A reflexive verb in Spanish is when the subject and the object are the same.

I clean myself.
subject: I
verb: clean
object: myself


Since the subject and object are the same, the verb is reflexive.

I clean the car.
subject: I
verb: clean
object: car

Since the subject and object are different, the verb is not reflexive.


Note: When a verb is reflexive, the infinitive ends in “se”

limpiar
to clean (non-reflexive)

limpiarse
to clean oneself (reflexive)

oler
to smell (non-reflexive)

olerse
to smell oneself (reflexive)


Note: When you learned to conjugate regular verbs, you needed to learn a set of pronouns called “subject pronouns.”

Limpiar (to clean) (Present Tense)

yo limpio
 limpias
él, ella, usted limpia
nosotros(as) limpiamos
vosotros(as) limpiáis
ellos(as), ustedes limpian


Note: To learn to conjugate reflexive verbs, you need to learn a different set of pronouns called “reflexive pronouns.”
These pronouns are positioned before the verb, while the ending
“se” is dropped and the verb is conjugated normally.

e.g.

limpiarse

yo me limpio – I clean (myself)

tú te limpias – you clean (yourself) (informal)

él se limpia – he cleans (himself)

ella se limpia – she cleans (herself)

usted se limpia – you clean (yourself) (formal)

nosotros nos limpiamos – we clean (ourselves)

nosotras nos limpiamos – we clean (ourselves) (feminine)

vosotros os limpiáis – you-all clean (yourselves) (informal)

vosotras os limpiáis – you-all clean (yourselves) (informal, feminine)

ustedes se limpian – you-all clean (yourselves)(formal)

ellos se limpian – they clean (themselves)

ellas se limpian – they clean (themselves) (feminine)


Note: The reflexive pronouns are not subject pronouns; rather they are object pronouns.

me (myself)
te (yourself)
se (himself, herself, yourself)
nos (ourselves)
os (yourselves)
se (themselves, yourselves)

Note: The purpose of the reflexive object pronouns is to show that the action of the verb remains with the subject.

Ana se prepara la sopa. (for herself)

Ana prepares the soup.
(reflexive)

Ana prepara la sopa.  (for others)
Ana prepares the soup. (non-reflexive)


Tip: When referring to body parts, use the definite article, thus “la cara”, not “su cara”

learn reflexive verbs in Spanish

When to Use Reflexive verbs | Spanish 2

Note: When the sentence has two verbs, the pronoun can be placed directly before the conjugated verb or attached to the end of the infinitive.

e.g.

Te quieres ver. – You want to see yourself.

Quieres
verte.


Paola se necesita lavar el pelo – Paola needs to wash her hair.

Paola necesita
lavarse el pelo.


Ahora Paola se puede cepillar los dientes – Paola can brush her teeth now.

Ahora Paola puede
cepillarse los dientes


Note: Whenever a verb directly follows a preposition, it remains in the infinitive form. For reflexive verbs, the ending “-se” changes to agree with the subject.

e.g.

Antes de cepillarmeyo desayuno.- Before brushing, I have breakfast

Antes de cepillarte desayunas- Before brushing, you have breakfast

Antes de cepillarsela chica desayuna.- Before brushing, the girl has breakfast

Antes de cepillarnosnosotros desayunamos.- Before brushing, we had breakfast

Antes de cepillarosvosotros desayunáis – Before brushing, you have breakfast

Antes de cepillarselos chicos desayunan.- Before brushing, the boys have breakfast

 

For some verbs, the meaning changes when they are used reflexively.

aburrir – to bore

aburrir
se to be bored

acordar – to agree

acordar
se de – to remember

acostar – to put to bed

acostar
se to go to bed

casar – to perform a marriage ceremony

casar
se con – to become married to someone

despedir – to fire

despedir
se de – to say goodbye

dormir – to sleep

dormir
se
to fall asleep

ir – to go

ir
se to go away, to leave

morir – to die (abruptly, as of an accident, war, etc.)

morir
se to die (as from natural causes; also “to die” figuratively)

negar – to deny

negar
se a – to refuse

parecer – to seem

parecer
se a – to resemble

poner – to put

poner
se to put on

probar – to try, to taste

probar
se to try on

quitar – to take away

quitar
se to take off


Note: A few verbs are always used reflexively.

arrepentirse (e:ie) – to repent

atrever
se a – to dare

dar
se cuenta de – to realize

jactar
se de – to boast

quejar
se de – to complain about

suicidar
se to commit suicide

 Read more about the Spanish grammar

Possessive Pronouns in Spanish

Possessive Pronouns in Spanish Translation

Possessive Pronouns in Spanish Translation

Learn how to use possessive pronouns in Spanish. The possessive pronouns are similar to the possessive adjectives, but they are normally used with a definite article.

What is possessive pronoun and examples in Spanish?

       Singular Feminine – Plural Feminine

mine– la mía– las mías

yours (informal)– la tuya– las tuyas

his/hers– la suya– las suyas

yours (formal)– la suya– las suyas

ours– la nuestra– las nuestras

yours (informal)– la vuestra– las vuestras

yours (formal)– la suya– las suyas

theirs– la suya– las suyas

 

Singular Masculine   Plural Masculine

mine– el mío– los míos

yours (informal)– el tuyo– los tuyos

his/hers– el suyo– los suyos

yours (formal)– el suyo– los suyos

ours– el nuestro– los nuestros

yours (informal)– el vuestro– los vuestros

yours (formal)– el suyo– los suyos

theirs– el suyo– los suyos

 

e.g.

Mi casa es grande. – My house is large.

La  tuya es pequeña.(you informal) – Yours is small.

Tu cuarto es de color azul.- Your bedroom’s color is blue.

El mío es de color amarillo. – Mine is yellow.

Mi gato es rápido. – My cat is fast.

El suyo es lento. (you formal)Yours (formal) is slow.

 

Note: The definite article is usually omitted when the possessive pronoun comes after the verb “ser”

El gato lento es mío. – The slow cat is mine.

La casa pequeña es suya. – The small house is hers.

Notice the following ambiguity

La casa pequeña es suya. – The small house is hers.

La casa pequeña es suya. – The small house is his.

 

Note: “El suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas” can be clarified as follows:

La casa pequeña es suya. – The small house is hers. (unclarified)

La casa pequeña es de ella. – The small house is hers. (clarified)

El carro pequeño es suyo. – The small car is his. (unclarified)

El carro pequeño es de él. – The small car is his. (clarified)

Las casas pequeñas son suyas. – The small houses are theirs. (unclarified)

Las casas pequeñas son de ellas. – The small houses are theirs. (clarified)

Los carros pequeños son suyos. – The small cars are theirs. (unclarified)

Los carros pequeños son de ellos. – The small cars are theirs. (clarified)

 

Tip: “de + el” are contracted to form “del”,  however, “de + él” are not contracted.

Advanced Features

Demonstrative Adjectives in Spanish Translation

What is a demonstrative adjective in Spanish?

Demonstratives in Spanish, demonstratives adjectives in Spanish,  Spanish grammar

Learn how to use demonstrative adjectives in Spanish translation. In this lesson, we will discuss demonstratives of two types: demonstrative adjectives and demonstrative pronouns.

Adjective: describes a noun

Pronoun: takes the place of a noun

 What are the 4 demonstrative pronouns in Spanish?

The same is true in Spanish.

Ella escribe  este libro.- She writes this book. (adjective)

Ella escribe este –  She writes this. (pronoun)

Eso es mío –That is mine.

Eso es mío.-That (one) is mine


Note:  In Spanish, we also say “this” and “that”, but there is another, separate word used to mean “that one over there.” This form is used when the object is more than just a short distance away, for example, on the other side of the room.

Here are the three forms for “this” “that” and “that one over there.”

estethis
ese –  that
aquel – that one over there

Remember that in Spanish, adjectives have four forms:
masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular, feminine plural.

For example, the adjective “short” has four forms in Spanish:

“pequeño, pequeños, pequeña, pequeñas”.

el chico pequeño
los chicos pequeños

la chica pequeña
las chicas pequeñas


The demonstrative adjectives in Spanish translation also have four forms:

este lápiz (this pencil)
estos lápices (these pencils)
esta libreta (this notebook)
estas libretas (these notebooks)

ese lápiz (that pencil)
esos lápices (those pencils)
esa libreta (that notebook)
esas libretas (those notebooks)

aquel lápiz (that pencil over there)
aquellos lápices (those pencils over there)
aquella libreta (that notebook over there)
aquellas libretas (those notebooks over there)


The corresponding demonstrative pronouns:

este (this one – masculine)
estos (these ones – masculine)
esta (this one – feminine)
estas (these ones – feminine)

ese (that one – masculine)
esos (those ones – masculine)
esa (that one – feminine)
esas (those ones – feminine)

aquel (that one over there – masculine)
aquellos (those ones over there – masculine)
aquella (that one over there – feminine)
aquellas (those ones over there – feminine)


Each demonstrative pronoun also has a neuter form. They do not change for number or gender, and they are used to refer to abstract ideas, or to an unknown object.

esto (this matter, this thing)
eso (that matter, that thing)
aquello (that matter/thing over there)

 

 

Read more about the demonstratives adjectives in Spanish

Irregular Comparatives in Spanish

How to use the irregular comparatives in Spanish?

Irregular comparatives in spanish

Learn how to use the irregular comparatives in Spanish. The following adjectives have irregular forms for the comparative and the superlative:

Adjective: bueno (good)
Comparative: 
mejor (better)
Superlative: 
el/la mejor (the best)

Adjective: malo (bad)
Comparative: 
peor (worse)
Superlative:
 el/la peor (the worst)

Adjective: grande (big)
Comparative: 
mayor (older; greater)
Superlative: 
el/la mayor (the oldest; the greatest)

Adjective: pequeño (small)
Comparative: 
menor (younger; less)
Superlative: 
el/la menor (the youngest; the least)

 

Note: The words “más” and “menos” are not used with the irregular comparatives.

e.g.

Correct:
Este queso es
bueno, pero ese queso  es mejor. – This cheese is good, but that cheese is better.

Este arroz es malo, pero ese arroz está peor- This rice is bad, but that rice is worse

Note: With the irregular superlatives, the
demonstrative adjective is used.

Este queso es bueno.- This cheese is good.

Ese queso es mejor.- That cheese is better.

Aquel queso es el mejor. –That cheese over there is the best.

 

Note: When referring to size, “grande” and “pequeño” follow the normal rules for comparative and superlative forms. That is, they do not use the irregular forms “menor” and “mayor”.

e.g.

Esta casa es grande.- This house is big.

Esa casa es más grande. –That house is bigger.

Aquella casa es la más grande. –That house over there is the biggest.

 

Note: When referring to age, use the irregular forms “mayor” and “menor”.

e.g.

Yo soy  menor que tú. – I am younger than you.

Tú eres la mayor de las hermanas. – You are the eldest of the sisters


Note: When referring to the concepts “less” or “greater”, use the irregular forms “mayor” and “menor”.

e.g.

La salud es de mayor importancia que el dinero. – Health is of greater importance than money.

El dinero es de menor importancia que la salud – Money is of less importance than health.


Note: The words “joven” and “viejo” are used for non-comparative descriptions of age.

e.g.

El chica es joven. –The girl is young.

El abuelo es viejo. –The grandfather is old.

Advanced Features

Hacer Time Expressions in Spanish

How Do You Use Hacer Time Expressions in Spanish?

Time expressions with "hacer"
Learn how to use hacer time expressions in Spanish.

 Note: The verb “hacer” can be used in a number of ways to indicate the length of time an action has been taking place. The first way uses the formula:

Hace + time + que + Present tense form of the verb

e.g.

Hace tiempo que no te veo – Long time no see you

Hace cuatro años que visitamos a Marta – Four years ago we visited Marta


Note: To make this type of expression negative, just add the word “no” before the verb, as in the following formula:

Hace + time + que + no +
Present tense form of the verb

e.g.

Hace cuatro años que no visitamos a Marta – Four years ago we did not visit Marta


– Another way to use the verb “hacer” to express how long something has been taking place is to use the following formula:

Present tense form of the verb + desde hace + time.

e.g.

Te veo desde hace un tiempo. – I have seen you for a while now

Visitamos a Marta desde hace cuatro años. – We visited Marta four years ago

 

Note: To make this type of expression negative, again simply add the word “no” before the verb, as in the following formula:

No + Present tense form of the verb + desde hace + time

e.g.

No te veo desde hace un tiempo. – I have not seen you for a while

No visitamos a Marta desde hace cuatro años.We have not visited Marta for four years

Advanced Features

Me Gusta in Spanish

Me Gusta in Spanish Translation

Verbs like "gustar" in spanish

Learn how to use me gusta in Spanish. The verb “gustar” requires use of the indirect object pronouns.

Note: The only forms of “gustar” you will use are “gusta” and “gustan”

e.g.

Me gusta la fresa.
I like the strawberry

Te gusta el programa.
You like the program.

Nos gusta el color azul.
We like the color blue.

Me gustan las fresas.
I like the strawberries

Te gustan los programas.
You like the programs.

Nos gustan los colores.
We like the colors.


Note: Remember, “gustar” becomes either “gusta” or “gustan”, depending upon whether the subject of the sentence is singular or plural.

e.g.

Subject /Singular Subject/Plural Subject

Yo (I)/Me gusta la casa/Me gustan las casas

Tú (You)(Informal)/Te gusta el libro/Te gustan los libros

Él /Ella(He/She)/Le gusta la ropa/Le gustan las ropas

Usted (You)(Formal)/Le gusta  la playa/Le gustan las playas

Nosotros(as)(We)/Nos gusta  el refresco/Nos gustan los refrescos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal)/Os gusta  la competencia/Os gustan las competencias

Ellos(as)(They)/Les gusta la canción/Les gustan las canciones

Ustedes(You)(Formal)/Les gusta el ejercicio/Les gustan los ejercicios


Note: For purposes of clarification, the sentence will often begin with a prepositional phrase that clarifies just who the indirect object pronoun refers to.

e.g.

A ella le gustan los frijoles.
She likes the beans

A él le gustan los frijoles.
He likes the beans

A usted le gustan los frijoles.
You (formal) like the beans.

A ellos les gusta la comida.
They like the food.

A nosotros nos gusta la comida.
We like the food


Note: As you can see, by adding a prepositional phrase, we remove the ambiguity of the “le” form.

Note: You can also use a prepositional phrase to add emphasis, even if there is no ambiguity.


e.g.

A Julia le gusta el café.
Julia likes coffee.

A mí me gusta la sopa caliente.
I like hot soup.


– Here is a list of verbs similars to “gustar”

aburrir – to bore

fascinar – to be fascinating to

bastar – to be sufficient

importer – to be important to

caer bien (mal) – to (not) suit

interesar – to be interesting to

dar asco – to be loathsome

molestar – to be a bother

disgustar – to hate something

parecer – to appear to be

doler (o:ue) – to be painful

picar – to itch

encantar – to “love” something

quedar – to be left over, remain

faltar – to be lacking something

volver (o:ue) loco – to be crazy about

Advanced Features

Direct and Indirect Object in Spanish

How to Use the Spanish Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns Together?

Direct and indirect object pronouns "together" in spanish
Learn how to use direct and indirect object in Spanish. Here are the direct object pronouns and the indirect object pronouns 

Direct Object PronounsIndirect Object PronounsEnglish Equivalent

mememe

teteyou (familiar)

lo, lalehim, her, it, you (formal)

nosnosus

ososyou-all (informal)

los, laslesthem, you-all (formal)

Note: When you have both a direct object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun in the same sentence, the indirect object pronoun comes first.

e.g.

Ellas me los dan. – They give them to me.
IO pronoun: me
DO pronoun: los

Yo te la vendo. – I sell it to you.
IO pronoun: te
DO pronoun: la


Note: Whenever both pronouns begin with the letter
“l” change the first pronoun to “se”

le lo = se lo

le la = se la

le los = se los

le las = se las

les lo = se lo

les la = se la

les los = se los

les las = se las


Tip: The reason for changing “le lo” to “se lo” is merely to avoid the tongue-twisting effect of two short consecutive words that begin with the letter “l”.


Note: In negative sentences, the negative word comes directly before the first pronoun.

e.g.

No te la  puedo arreglar – I can’t fix it for you.

Nunca se los compro. –  I never buy them for her.


Note: Because the pronoun “se” can have so many meanings, it is often helpful to clarify it by using a prepositional phrase.

e.g.

Ella se lo preguntó. – She asked him (to Joseph).

Nosotros se lo hicimos. – We did it to him. (to Joseph)

Ellos se lo comieron. – They  ate (it)

Yo te la cambié. – I changed it (for you)


Note: In sentences with two verbs, there are two options regarding the placement of the pronouns. Place them immediately before the conjugated verb or attach them directly to the infinitive.

e.g.

Place it immediately before the conjugated verb

Ella se lo necesita dar – She needs to give him (the key)

Ella nos lo debe prestar  – She must lend us (the money).

 

e.g.

Attach it directly to the infinitive

Ella necesita dárselo – She needs to give him the key.

Ella debe prestárnoslo – She must lend us (the money)

 

Look how it works:

e.g.

Ella se lo necesita dar – She needs to give him (the key)

Ella necesita dárselo – She needs to give him (the key)

Ella nos lo debe prestar – She must lend us (the money)

Ella debe prestárnoslo – She must lend us (the money)

 

Note: When attaching the pronouns to the infinitive, a written accent is also added to the final syllable of the infinitive. This preserves the sound of the infinitive.

e.g.

Ella necesita dárselo

Ella debe prestárnoslo

 

Note: When the pronouns are attached to the infinitive, make the sentence negative by placing the negative word directly before the conjugated verb.

e.g.

Ella no necesita dárselo – She  doesn’t need to give him (the key)

Ella no debe prestárnoslo – She shouldn’t  lend us (the money)

 

Note: When the pronouns come before the conjugated verb, make the sentence negative by placing the negative word directly before the pronouns.

e.g.

Ella no se lo necesita dar – She  doesn’t need to give him (the key)

Ella no nos lo debe prestar – She shouldn’t lend us (the money)

Advanced Features

Spanish Indirect Object Pronouns

What are the Spanish Indirect Object Pronouns?

Indirect object pronouns 1, 2, 3 in spanish

Learn how to use the Spanish indirect object pronouns. The indirect object tells us where the direct object is going.

Indirect object pronouns 1

  1. The indirect object answers the question “to whom?” or “for whom” the action of the verb is performed.

 When a pronoun takes the place of the name of the indirect object, use the following pronouns:

Subject – Obj. Prep. Pronouns

Yo (I) – me

Tú (You)(Informal) – te

Él /Ella(He/She) – le               

Usted (You)(Formal) – le

Nosotros(as)(We) – nos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – os

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – les

Ellos(as)(They) – les

 

Note: In an affirmative statement with one verb, the indirect object pronoun comes immediately before the conjugated verb.

e.g.

José me trajo una rosa
Joseph brought me a rose.
Joseph brought a rose for me.

José te trajo una rosa.
Joseph brought you a rose.
Joseph brought a rose for you.

José le trajo una rosa.
Joseph brought her a rose.
Joseph brought a rose for her.

José  nos trajo una rosa.
Joseph brought us a rose.
Joseph brought a rose for us.

José os trajo una rosa.
Joseph brought you-all (informal) a rose.
Joseph brought a rose for you-all.

José les trajo una rosa.
Joseph brought them a rose.
Joseph brought a rose for them.

 

e.g.

me trajo
he brought me

me trajeron
they brought me

me trajiste
you brought me


Note: The IO pronouns “le” and “les” present a special problem because they are ambiguous. That is, they can stand for different things.

le
to (for) him
to (for) her
to (for) you-formal

les
to (for) them
to (for) you-all-formal


e.g.

Ella le prepara espaguetis

She prepares spaghetti for him

She prepares spaghetti for her

She prepares spaghetti for you (formal)


Ella les prepara espaguetis

She prepares spaghetti for them

She prepares spaghetti for you-all (formal)

 

Note: Since “le” and “les” can mean more than one thing, a prepositional phrase is often added to remove the ambiguity.

e.g.

Ella le prepara a él espaguetis – She prepares spaghetti for him

Ella le prepara a ella espaguetis –She prepares spaghetti for her

Ella le prepara a usted espaguetis- She prepares spaghetti for you (formal)

Ella les prepara a ellos espaguetis – She prepares spaghetti for them

Ella les prepara a ustedes espaguetis – She prepares spaghetti for you-all (formal)

 

Note: Sometimes a prepositional phrase is added not for clarity, but rather for emphasis.

e.g.

José  me da a mí la llave.
Joseph gives me the key. (emphasizing that the key is given to me and not to someone else)

José te da a ti la llave.
Joseph gives you the key. (emphasizing that the key is given to you and not to someone else)

Indirect object pronouns 1, 2, 3 in spanish

Spanish Indirect object pronouns 2

When a pronoun takes the place of the name of the indirect object, use the following pronouns:

Subject – Obj. Prep. Pronouns

Yo (I) – me

Tú (You)(Informal) – te

Él /Ella(He/She) – le               

Usted (You)(Formal) – le

Nosotros(as)(We) – nos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – os

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – les

Ellos(as)(They) – les

 

Note: In a “negative statement” with one verb, the indirect object pronoun comes between the negative word and the conjugated verb.

e.g.

José no me trajo una rosa
Joseph doesn’t brought me a rose.
Joseph doesn’t brought a rose for me.

José no te trajo una rosa.
Joseph doesn’t brought you a rose.
Joseph doesn’t brought a rose for you.

José no le trajo una rosa.
Joseph doesn’t brought her a rose.
Joseph doesn’t brought a rose for her.

José  no nos trajo una rosa.
Joseph doesn’t brought us a rose.
Joseph doesn’t brought a rose for us.

José no os trajo una rosa.
Joseph doesn’t brought you-all (informal) a rose.
Joseph doesn’t brought a rose for you-all.

José no les trajo una rosa.
Joseph doesn’t brought them a rose.
Joseph doesn’t brought a rose for them.

 

Compare the affirmative statements with their negative counterparts.

e.g.

Affirmative

Negative

José me trajo una rosa

José no me trajo una rosa

José te trajo una rosa.

José no te trajo una rosa.

José le trajo una rosa.

José no le trajo una rosa.

José nos trajo una rosa.

José  no nos trajo una rosa.

José os trajo una rosa.

José no os trajo una rosa.

José les trajo una rosa.

José no les trajo una rosa.


The indirect object pronouns “le” and “les” present a special problem because they are ambiguous. That is, they can stand for different things.

le
to (for) him
to (for) her
to (for) you-formal

les
to (for) them
to (for) you-all-formal

 

e.g.

José no le trajo una rosa

Joseph doesn’t brought her a rose.
Joseph doesn’t brought him a rose.
Joseph doesn’t broughtyou (formal)  a rose.

José no les trajo una rosa

Joseph doesn’t brought them a rose.
Joseph doesn’t brought you-all (formal) a rose.

Note: Since “le” and “les” can mean more than one thing, a prepositional phrase is often added to remove the
ambiguity.


e.g.

Ella no le prepara a él espaguetis – She doesn’t prepare him spaghetti

Ella no le prepara a ella espaguetis – She doesn’t prepare her spaghetti

Ella no le prepara a usted espaguetis – She doesn’t prepare you (formal) spaghetti

Ella no les prepara a ellos espaguetis – She doesn’t prepare them spaghetti

Ella no les prepara a ustedes espaguetis – She doesn’t prepare you-all (formal) spaghetti

 

Note: Sometimes a prepositional phrase is added not for clarity, but rather for emphasis.

e.g.

José  no me da a mí la llave.
Joseph doesn’t gives me the key. (emphasizing that the key is given to me and not to
someone else)

José no te da a ti la llave.
Joseph doesn’t gives you the key. (emphasizing that the key is given to you and not to someone else)

 

spanish language school valencia

Indirect object pronouns 3

When a pronoun takes the place of the name of the indirect object, use the following pronouns:

Subject – Obj. Prep. Pronouns

Yo (I) – me

Tú (You)(Informal) –  te

Él /Ella(He/She) – le               

Usted (You)(Formal) – le

Nosotros(as)(We) – nos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – os

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – les

Ellos(as)(They) – les

 

Note: In sentences with two verbs, there are two options regarding the placement of the indirect object pronoun.

  1. Place it immediately before the conjugated verb
  2. Attach it directly to the infinitive

e.g.

Place it immediately before the conjugated verb

Tú  necesitas dar la llave.
You  need to give me the key.

Ella nos debe prestar el dinero.
She must lend us the money.


e.g.

Attach it directly to the infinitive

Necesitas darme la llave.
You  need to give me the key.

Ella debe prestarnos el dinero.
She must lend us the money.

 

Look now how it works:

e.g.

Tú necesitas dar la llave. – You  need to give me the key.

Necesitas darme la llave. – You  need to give me the key.

Ella nos debe prestar el dinero. – She must lend us the money.

Ella debe prestarnos el dinero. – She must lend us the money.

Advanced Features

 

Direct Object Pronouns Spanish

What are the direct object pronouns in Spanish?

learn Direct object pronouns

 Learn how to use the direct object pronouns in Spanish. The object that directly receives the action of the verb is called the direct object. The direct object can also be a person.

Direct object pronouns in Spanish 1

The direct object answers the question “what?” or “whom?” with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing.

Often, it is desirable to replace the name of the direct object with a pronoun.

When the pronoun replaces the name of the direct object, use the following pronouns:

Subject – Obj. Prep. Pronouns

Yo (I) – me

Tú (You)(Informal) – te

Él /Ella(He/She) – lo, la

Usted (You)(Formal)-lo, la

Nosotros(as)(We) – nos

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – os

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – los, las

Ellos(as)(They) – los, las

 

Note: In an affirmative statement with one verb, the direct object pronoun comes immediately before the conjugated verb.

e.g.

Compro = I buy
Compro (la casa). = I buy the house.

(La) compro. = I buy it.

 

Veo = I see
Veo (el letrero)= I see the sign.

(Lo) veo. = I see it.


Note:  When the direct object of the sentence changes to a masculine noun, the masculine pronoun must be used.

e.g.

– Lisa lo tiene.(masculine)

Lisa tiene = Lisa has
Lisa tiene (el papel)= Lisa has the paper
Lisa (lo) tiene. = Lisa has it.

– Lisa la tiene.(feminine)

Lisa tiene = Lisa has
Lisa tiene (la carta). = Lisa has the letter.
Lisa (la) tiene. = Lisa has it.


Note: Likewise, if the direct object of the sentence changes from singular to plural, the plural pronoun must be used.

e.g.

– Lisa lo tiene. changing from (singular) to (plural)

Lisa tiene = Lisa has
Lisa tiene (el papel)= Lisa has the paper
Lisa (lo) tiene. = Lisa has it.

Lisa tiene = Lisa has
Lisa tiene (los papeles)= Lisa has the papers
Lisa (los) tiene. = Lisa has them.

 

– Lisa la tiene. changing from(singular) to (plural)

Lisa tiene = Lisa has
Lisa tiene (la carta).= Lisa has the letter.
Lisa (la) tiene. = Lisa has it.

Lisa tiene = Lisa has
Lisa tiene (las cartas). = Lisa has the letters.
Lisa (las) tiene. = Lisa has them.

 

Tip: Look at how Spanish and English are different.

“Lo tengo” (masculine) and “La tengo” (feminine) BOTH
mean “I have it.”

“Lo quiero”  (masculine) and “La
quiero” (feminine) BOTH mean “I want it”

 

e.g.

Yo te creo – I believe you.
Ella lo quiere – She wants him.
Yo te amo – I love you
Mi madre la hizo – My mother made it.
Ellos nos preguntan – They asked us.
Tú lo llamas – You call him.

Direct object pronouns  spanish

Direct object pronouns in Spanish 2

Note: In a negative sentence with one verb, the direct object pronoun is placed between the negative word and the conjugated verb.


e.g.

Affirmative Sentence

Cocino la carne – I cook the meat.

La cocino.  – (I cook it)

 

Negative Sentence

No cocino la carne. – I don’t cook the meat

No la cocino. – (I don’t cook it)


Compare the following affirmative statements with their negative counterparts:


Affirmative Sentence – Negative Sentence

Las quieres.(You want them) – No las quieres. (You don’t want them)

La escucha (He listens to her) – No la escucha (He doesn’t listen to her)

Ellos nos conocen.(They know us) – Ellos no nos conocen. (They don’t know us)

study direct object pronouns

Direct object pronouns in Spanish 3

Note: When a sentence has two verbs, the first verb is conjugated and the second verb remains in the infinitive form.

e.g.

querer (to want)

comer (to eat)

Quiero comer carne asada. – I want to eat roast meat

 

deber (to must)

hacer (to do)

Debo hacer las tareas – I must do the tasks 

 

Note: In sentences with two verbs, there are two options regarding the placement of the direct object pronoun.

1.    Place it immediately before the conjugated verb.

2.    Attach it directly to the infinitive.

 

e.g.

Place it immediately before the conjugated verb.

Lo quiero comer. – I want to eat it.

Lo debo hacer. – I must do it

Ella nos debe llamar. – She should call us.

Carlos lo necesita dividir. – Carlos needs to divide it.

 

e.g .

Attach it directly to the infinitive.

Quiero comerlo. – I want to eat it.

Debo hacerlo. – I must do it

Debe llamarnos.- She should call us.

Necesita dividirlo. – Carlos needs to divide it.

 

Look how this works

e.g.

Lo quiero comer. – I want to eat it.

Quiero comerlo. – I want to eat it.

Lo debo hacer. – I must do it

Debo hacerlo. – I must do it

 

Ella nos debe llamar. – She should call us.

Debe llamarnos. – She should call us.

 

Carlos lo necesita dividir. – Carlos needs to divide it.

Necesita dividirlo. – Carlos needs to divide it.

 

Note: These same rules apply for questions and negative statements.

¿Lo debo hacer? – Should  I do it?

¿Debo hacerlo? – Should  I do it?

Carlos no lo necesita dividir. – Carlos doesn’t need to divide it.

Carlos no necesita dividirlo. – Carlos doesn’t need to divide it.

Advanced Features

 
 
 
 

Spanish Prepositional Pronouns

Pronouns as objects of prepositions in spanish

What are Spanish prepositional pronouns?

Learn how to use Spanish Prepositional Pronouns. A pronoun is a word that is used instead of the name of a person or thing.

When the pronoun acts as the object of a preposition, a different set of pronouns is used.


Subject – Obj. Prep. Pronouns

Yo (I) – mí

Tú (You)(Informal) – ti

Él/Ella(He/She) – él ,ella

Usted (You)(Formal) – usted

Nosotros(as)(We) – nosotros/as

Vosotros(as)(You)(Informal) – vosotros/as

Ustedes(You)(Formal) – ustedes

Ellos(as)(They) – ellos/as


Note: Only “mí” and “ti” are different from the subject pronouns. Use this second set of pronouns to replace the noun that comes immediately after a preposition.

e.g.

La profesora habla de mí. – My teacher talks about me.

Tú hablas con ellos. – You talk to them.

Roberto trajo unas flores para ella. – Robert brought some flowers for her.

 

 

Note: Whenever “mí” follows the preposition “con”, the two words combine to form “conmigo”.


e.g.

Mi padre viene conmigo – My father comes with me

Mi gato está aquí conmigo – My cat is here with me

 

Note: Whenever “ti” follows the preposition “con”, the two words combine to form “contigo”.


e.g.

Mi padre va contigo – My father goes with you

Mi gato está allí contigo – My cat is there with you

 

Notes:

1- Whenever you want to say “with him, with her, with you (formal), with them, with you-all (formal)” there are two possibilities. If the pronoun is referring to the subject of the sentence, use “consigo”.

e.g.

Pronoun does refer to the subject

Ella llevó los libros consigo – She took the bookswith her(self).

¿Por qué no lleva un libro consigo? – Why don’t you take a book with your(self)(formal)?

 

2- If the pronoun does not refer to the subject of the sentence, use “con + the appropriate pronoun”.

e.g.

Pronoun does not refer to the subject

Ellas viven con él. – They live with him.

Yo quiero hacer ejercicios con usted – I want to do exercises with you(formal) 



There are six special prepositions that are followed by subject pronouns rather than object pronouns.

entre – between

excepto – except

incluso – including, even

menos – except

según – according to

salvo – except

 

e.g.

Esto queda entre tú y yo. – This is between me and you

Todos vamos a la fiesta, incluso yo. – We all go to the party, even me

Según tú, ellos ya lo saben. – According to you, they already know

Salvo los frijoles, ya todo está cocinado – Exceptfor the beans, everything is cooked

Compré todo, menos la lechuga – I bought everything, except the lettuce

Advanced Features