Hay in Spanish

How to say hay in Spanish?

 hay in Spanish

It’s time to study “How to translate hay in Spanish?”, this is a verb form that expresses the idea of existence. When you use it with singular nouns it means there is, and when it is used with plural nouns it means there are .


 Hay (there is, there are)

– ¿Qué hay en la oficina? (What is there in the office?)

– Hay un escritorio y una computadora. (There is a desk and a computer.)


– ¿Qué hay en la caja? (What is there in the box?)

– Hay un dólar. (There is a dollar.)


– ¿Qué hay en su maleta? (What is there in your suitcase?)

– Hay solo ropa (There are only clothes.)



– ¿Cuántos estudiantes de español hay en la clase? (How many Spanish students are there in the class?)

– Hay doce estudiantes de español. (There are twelve Spanish students.)


– ¿Cuántos mochileros hay en el hotel? (How many backpackers are there in the hotel?)

– Hay diez mochileros. (There are ten backpackers.)


– ¿Cuántos turistas hay en el barco? (How many tourists are there in the boat?)

– Hay cinco turistas en el barco. (There are five tourists in the boat.)


– ¿Cuántas manzanas hay en el refrigerador? (How many apples are there in the refrigerator?)

– Hay tres manzanas. (There are tree apples.)


– ¿Qué hay en su maleta? (What is there in your suitcase?)

– Hay solo ropa (There are only clothes.)



– ¿Hay azúcar? (There is sugar?)

– Sí hay. (Yes, there is.)


– ¿Hay suficiente jugo de naranja? (There is enough orange juice?)

– No, no hay suficiente. (No, there is not enough.)


– ¿Hay suficiente pan? (There is enough bread?)

– Sí, hay suficiente pan. (Yes, there is enough bread.)




Spanish Idioms

Hay mucho ruido en este lugar. (There is a lot of noise in this place.)

Hay mucha basura en esta casa. (There is a lot of garbage in this house.)

No hay más dinero. (There is no more money.)

No hay más comida. (There is no more food.)

No me moleste. (Don’t bother me.)

No me persiga. (Don’t follow me.)

No me pregunte. (Don’t ask me.)

No entiendo nada. (I don’t understand anything.)

Estoy tan confundido / confundida. (I am so confused.)

Es solo una broma / chiste. (It is only a joke.)


Read more about Hay in Spanish:

Hay in Spanish | Lesson

Ay vs Ahí vs Hay in Spanish

Spanish Expressions with Gustaría

What are some Spanish expressions with gustaría?

How to translate Spanish expressions with gustaría?. Buenos días o buenas tardes o buenas noches (good morning or good afternoon or good night). ¿Cómo están ustedes?… (How are you all). Today we are going to study “Gustaría” which means “would like”, a handy expression to know.


Let’s see (Veamos):

Me gustaría

Te gustaría

Le gustaría

Nos gustaría

Les gustaría I would like

You would like

He, She, You (formal) would like

We would like

They, You (plural) would like


Do you remember gustar from last lesson? Well Gustaría is a form of gustar, therefore we used it with the indirect object pronouns (me, te, le, nos, les).

Sometimes we used gustar with a prepositional phrase just to make it clear of whom we are talking about. We Spanish speakers very often use phrases with a (to), such as a Pedro (to Pedro) 


A Pedro le gusta estudiar español (To Pedro he likes to study Spanish, or Pedro likes to study Spanish).

A Pedro le gustaría estudiar español (To Pedro he would like to study Spanish, or Pedro would like to study Spanish).

A María le gusta la lección de español (To Maria She likes the Spanish lesson, or Maria likes the Spanish lesson).

A María le gustaría una lección de español (To Maria She would like a Spanish lesson, or Maria would like a Spanish lesson).

 What does gustaría mean?

Note: This probably does not make much sense in English but that is how we say it in Spanish. Remember languages are not logical.


Ahora vamos a repetir estas frases en voz alta (Now let’s repeat these phrases aloud):


Me gustaría visitar un país hispano (I would like to visit a Hispanic country).

Te gustaría viajar a lugares remotos (You would like to travel to remote places).

A Juan le gustaría aprender más vocabulario (Juan would like to learn more vocabulary).

A Elena le gustaría caminar en el centro de la ciudad (Elena would like to walk downtown).

Nos gustaría aprender español en el extranjero (We would like to learn Spanish overseas).

A los estudiantes les gustaría escuchar musica latina (The students would like to listen to Latin music).


Spanish Idioms

¡Qué calor! = How hot- more literally ‘what heat!’

¡Qué feo! =How ugly!

¡Qué ridículo! =How ridiculous!

¡Qué malcriado! W=hat a brat!

El burro hablando de orejas =The donkey speaking about ears/The tea pot calling the kettle black

No hay mal que por bien no venga =There is nothing bad from which good doesn’t come

No todo lo que brilla es oro = Not all/everything that shines/glitters is gold


Note: Spanish uses 2 exclamation marks, one upside down to open a sentence, and one regular one to finish it.


Read more about me gusta in Spanish:

Spanish verb gustar practice

Me gustan | Verbs like gustar

Gustar conjugation in Spanish

Gustar in Spanish | Quizlet

Useful Spanish Expressions

What are the most useful Spanish expressions?

How to translate useful Spanish expressions?. ¡Hola mis amigos!

The verbs deber (should or ought to), necesitar (to need), and the impersonal expressions hay que (one must) and es necesario (it is necessary) are very useful for forming quick expressions when speaking in Spanish. Here are some examples:


Deber (should, ought to)


Yo debo escribir las lecciones. (I should write the lessons.)

Tú debes leer las expresiones. (You should read the expressions.)

El debe estudiar español. (He should study Spanish.)

Nosotros debemos practicar diariamente. (We should practice daily.)

Ellos deben trabajar más. (They should work more.)

Necesitar (to need)


Yo necesito hablar en español. (I need to speak Spanish.)

Tú necesitas aprender los verbos. (You need to learn the verbs.)

Ella necesita comprar un diccionario. (She needs to buy a dictionary.)

Nosotros necesitamos aprender otro idioma. (We need to learn another language.)


Hay que (one must)


Hay que llegar a tiempo. (One must arrive on time.)

Hay que hacer la tarea. (One must do the homework.)

Hay que limpiar la casa. (One must clean the house.)


Es Necesario (it is necessary)


Es necesario comer todos los dias. (It is necessary eat every day.)

Es necesario caminar frecuentemente. (It is necessary to walk frequently.)

No es necesario bailar cada noche. (It is not necessary to dance every night.)


Note: Did you notice that these verbs are always followed by infinitives?

Spanish Idioms

Es cierto (it’s true)

No es cierto (it is not true)

Muy bien (very well)

Un poco de (a little bit of)

Nada de (nothing of)

A veces (sometimes)

Más o menos (more or less, so so)

Casi nunca (almost never)


Read more about some useful Spanish expressions:

Spanish expressions and useful words

Expressing Possession in Spanish

Expressing Possession in Spanish | How do you show possession in Spanish?


It’s time to study: expressing possession in Spanish.

Hola mis estudiantes de Español

(Hello my Spanish students)


¿Listos? (Ready?)

The easiest way to express possession in Spanish is by using the verb “tener” (to have) – we know this right?:

yo tengo, tú tienes, él tiene, usted tiene, nosotros tenemos, ellos tienen.



Yo tengo una escuela de español. (I have a Spanish school.)

Tú tienes una lección de español. (You have a Spanish lesson.)

El tiene un disco en español. (He has a Spanish CD.)




Another easy way to express possession in Spanish is using the preposition “de” (of) as an equivalent of the English ‘s. Example:

El cuaderno de Juan. (Juan’s notebook.)

La computadora de Carlos. (Carlos’ computer.)

La casa de Ana. (Ana’s house)

Los libros de Susana. (Susana’s books.)

El dormitorio de los niños. (The kid’s room.)


Note: We never use apostrophe and s to express possession.


 Other ways to express possession 

The other way to express possession is with the questions “¿de quién es?” (whose is this) or “¿de quién son?” (whose are these), Below you can see what I am meaning:


– ¿De quién es este libro? (Whose book is this?)

– Este libro es de María. (This is Maria’s book, or This book belongs to Maria.)


– ¿De quién son estos libros? (Whose books are these?)

– Estos libros son de María. (These are Maria’s books or These books belong to Maria)


Note: The verb ser (to be) followed by the preposition de (of) is used to express possession.


 ¿De quién es? (singular form)= Whose is this?

¿De quién son? (plural form)= Whose are these?


Do you understand now?…When we want to know to whom a thing or things belong to, we ask: “¿De quién es?” , or “¿De quién son?”, The correct answer is “es de” or “son de”.


– ¿De quién es el disco en español? (Whose Spanish CD is this?)

– El disco en español es de Steven. (It is Steven’s Spanish CD, or The Spanish CD belongs to Steven.)


– ¿De quién son los discos en español? (Whose Spanish CDs are these?)

– Los discos en español son de Steven. (These are Steven’s Spanish CDs, or These Spanish CDs belong to Steven.)


Note: We never use apostrophe and s to express possession (Steve’s CDs).


Another way to express possession is using the possessive adjectives. Let’s see:




Mi (my)

ex: Mi diccionario es grande. (My dictionary is big.)


Tu (your)

ex: Tu lección es interesante. (Your lesson is interesting.)


Su (your, formal)

ex: Su pastel esta delicioso. (Your cake is delicious.)


Su (his,her)

ex: Su bebe es hermoso. (Her baby is beautiful.)


Nuestro, nuestra (our)

ex: Nuestro niño esta en la escuela de español / Nuestra niña esta en la escuela de español (Our boy is in the Spanish school. / Our girl is in the Spanish school.)


Su (your, plural)

ex: Su equipo es muy bueno. (Your team is very good.)


Su (their)

ex: Su caballo es muy caro. (Their horse is very expensive.)





Mis (my)

ex: Mis diccionarios son grandes. (My dictionaries are big.)


Tus (your)

ex: Tus lecciones son interesantes. (Your lessons are interesting.)


Sus (your, formal)

ex: Sus pasteles estan deliciosos. (Your cakes are delicious.)


Sus (his,her)

ex: Sus bebes son hermosos . (His babies are beautiful.)


Nuestros, nuestras (our)

ex: Nuestros niños estan en la escuela de español / Nuestras niñas estan en la escuela de español (Our boys are in the Spanish school. / Our girls are in the Spanish school.)


Sus (your, plural)

ex: Sus equipos son muy buenos. (Your teams are very good.)


Su (their)

ex: Sus caballos son muy caros. (Their horses are very expensive.)


Note 1: The possessive adjective, like other Spanish adjectives, needs to agree in number and gender with the noun it describes. In other words, it has to agree with the object owned.


Note 2: Tú with and accent mark corresponds to you but tu without an accent mark corresponds to your.


Read more about the Spanish grammar

Demonstrative Adjectives in Spanish

How many demonstrative adjectives in Spanish?


Let’s talk about the demonstrative adjectives in Spanish. Well, now that we have covered Past, Present and Future Tenses in Spanish we are ready for some easy and fun stuff. My theory always has been that you need first to understand these three basic tenses so you could communicate sooner and then learn some other useful things that we left behind.

Today we are going to study The Demonstrative Adjectives which are used to point out people and objects. It is important to remember that a demonstrative adjective has to agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies.


¡Listos! (Ready!)


The Demonstrative Adjectives in Spanish

(Los Adjetivos Demostrativos en Español)



Este (This, masculine and singular)

este libro (this book)

este pueblo (this town)

este hombre (this man)


Esta (This, feminine and singular)

esta casa (this house)

esta ciudad (this city)

esta mujer (this woman)


Estos (These, masculine and plural)

estos libros (these books)

estos pueblos (these towns)

estos hombres (these men)


Estas (These, feminine and plural)

estas casas (these houses)

estas ciudades (these houses)

estas mujeres (these women)



Tú estás (you are) carries an accent.

Estas (these, feminine) doesn’t carry an accent.

Él está (He is) carries an accent.

Esta (this) doesn’t carry an accent.



Ese (That, masculine and singular)

ese niño (that boy)

ese camino (that road)

ese carro (that car)


Esa (That, feminine and singular)

esa mesa (that table)

esa calle (that street)

esa señora (that lady)


Other demonstratives adjectives

Esos (Those, masculine and plural)

esos niños (those boys, those kids)

esos caminos (those roads)

esos carros (those cars)


Esas (Those, feminine and plural)

esas mesas (those tables)

esas calles (those streets)

esas señoras (those ladies)



Esto (This, unidentified object near to the speakers)

– María, ¿qué es esto? (María, what is this?)

– Lo siento, pero no sé. (I am sorry, but I don’t know.)


Eso (That, unidentified object far from the speakers)

– José, ¿sabes que es eso? (José, do you know what that is?)

– No, no sé. Eso parece un animal, pero no estoy seguro. (No, I don’t know. That seems an animal but I am not sure.)


There are some demonstrative adjectives that indicate that the person or thing pointed out it is more distant, usually far away in space or time.


Aquel (that, masculine and singular)

Yo recuerdo aquel juguete. (I remember that toy.)


Aquella (that, feminine and singular)

Nadie vive en aquella casa vieja. (Nobody lives in that old house.)


Aquellos (those, masculine and plural)

Aquellos años fueron muy hermosos. (Those years were very beautiful.)


Aquellas (those, feminine and plural)

¿Puedes ver aquellas montañas? (Can you see those mountains?)


Spanish Idioms

Otra vez (again)

¡ Que desagradable ! (how unpleasant)

Estoy Listo (I am ready)

La misma cosa otra vez (the same thing again)

¡ Estoy decepcionado ! (I am dissaponted !)

¡ Estoy contenta ! (I am content !)

No esperaba esto (I did not expect this)

¡ Que divertido ! (How fun !)

Aquí estoy (Here I am)

Allá voy (I am going there)


Read more about the demonstratives adjectives in Spanish

Articles, Nouns and Adjectives in Spanish

Articles, Nouns and Adjectives in Spanish | Lesson

Let’s talk about the articles, nouns and adjectives in Spanish.

The Articles

The definite article: English has only one definite article: “The” In Spanish the definite articles are: el, la, los, las:

 el carro (the car)

 la casa (the house)

 los carros (the cars)

 las casas (the houses)


“El” is used with masculine singular nouns; “la” is used with feminine singular nouns; “los” is used with masculine plural nouns; and “las” is used with feminine plural nouns.



You can tell the difference between “el” (article “the”) and “él” (personal pronoun “he”) because the second has an accent.


The indefinite article : In English the indefinite article is “a” or “an.” Its Spanish counterparts are: “un” (masculine nouns) and “una” (feminine nouns):


 un árbol (a tree)

 una mesa (a table)


The Nouns

In Spanish – unlike English – each noun is either masculine or feminine. Almost all nouns that end in o are masculine and the ones that end in a are feminine. (But, notice that I said almost). In order to form the plural of nouns ending in o or a, an s is added.



 el niño (the boy) los niños (the boys)

 la niña (the girl) las niñas (the girls)


Nouns ending in dad, tad, tud, umbre, ción, sión are feminine. The plural is formed by adding “es” to nouns ending in a consonant, and “s” to those ending in a vowel.


 la ciudad (the city) las ciudades (the cities)

 la facultad (the faculty) las facultades (the faculties)

 la actitud (the attitude) las actitudes (the attitudes)

 la legumbre (the vegetable) las legumbres (the vegetables)

 la nación (the nation) las naciones (the nations)

 la televisión (the television) las televisiones (the televisions)


There are some nouns that are masculine but end in “a.” To form the plural we have to add “s” (Don’t forget that the article “el” goes with masculine singular nouns and the article “los” goes with masculine plural nouns, so the plural of el mapa is los mapas.)



 el mapa (the map) el día (the day)

 el clima (the climate) el tema (the theme)

 el sistema (the system) el programa (the program)

 el telegrama (the telegram) el drama (the drama)

 el poema (the poem) el planeta (the planet)


Nouns ending in “e” tend to be masculine. To form the plural of nouns ending in “e” an “s” is added. (Don’t forget that the article: “el” goes with masculine singular nouns and the article “los” goes with masculine plural nouns, so the plural of el parque is los parques.)


 el parque (the park) el cine (the movie theater)

 el carro (the car) el café (the cafe)

 el viaje (the trip) el bosque (the forest)

 el aire (the air) el puente (the bridge)

 el arte (the art) el nombre (the name)


Here is a list of very common nouns that end in e but happen to be feminine:


 la calle (the street) la clase (the class)

 la leche (the milk) la llave (the key)

 la noche (the night) la gente (the people)

 la tarde (the afternoon) la nube (the cloud)


The Adjectives

First of all, Spanish adjectives have a different placement in the sentence than English adjectives: In English, it’s The pretty house , whereas in Spanish, it’s The house pretty = La casa bonita. In Spanish the noun comes before the adjective.


The Spanish adjectives must agree in gender and number with the nouns that they modify. This means that if the noun is feminine and singular the adjective has to be feminine and singular too. If the noun is feminine and plural the adjective has to be feminine and plural.



La mesa vieja (the old table)

Las mesas viejas (the old tables)


The same is true of masculine nouns. If the noun is masculine and singular the adjective has to be masculine and singular too. If the noun is masculine and plural the adjective has to be masculine and plural.



El carro sucio (the dirty car)

Los carros sucios (the dirty cars)


Most frequently used Spanish adjectives end in o (masculine) or a (feminine), according to the noun they modify.



alto, alta (tall)

ancho, ancha (wide)

amarillo, amarilla (yellow)

barato, barata (cheap)

blanco, blanca (white)

bonito, bonita (pretty)

bueno, buena (good)

caro, cara (expensive)

cómodo, cómoda (comfortable)

corto, corta (short)

delgado, delgada (thin)

duro, dura (hard)

estrecho, estrecha (narrow)

extranjero, extranjera (foreign)

feo, fea (ugly)

frío, fría (cold)

gordo, gorda (fat)

hermoso, hermosa (beautiful)

largo, larga (long)

limpio, limpia (clean)

loco, loca (crazy)

malo, mala (bad)

negro, negra (black)

rico, rica (rich)

sucio, sucia (dirty)

viejo, vieja (old)


However, there are many adjectives that end in e and some that end in consonants. These are called neutral adjectives, because they don’t change form with masculine or feminine nouns. To form their plurals you need to add an s to the ones ending in e and es to the ones ending in a consonant.



elegante (elegant)

excelente (excellent)

fuerte (strong)

grande (big)

humilde (humble)

importante (important)

inteligente (intelligent)

interesante (interesting)

pobre (poor)

triste (sad)

verde (green)


Spanish adjectives ending with consonants:

popular (popular)

azul (blue)

fácil (easy)

feliz (happy)

gris (gray)


Note: There are many rules about adjectives and many exceptions to those rules. The above is the most general and easiest approach to Spanish adjectives. You can learn more in the future, but if you learn the lesson here well, you’ll rarely have problems.

Learn more about the articles, nouns and adjectives in Spanish:

Irregular Verbs in the Present Tense

Irregular Verbs in the Present Tense | Lesson

What are the irregular verbs in the Present tense?. The verbs Ir (to go), Dar (to give) and Estar (to be) are irregular in the present tense. However, the only irregularity is in the first person yo. All other forms are the same forms of a regular “ar” verb.

Ir = to go







Dar = to give







Estar = to be








Example of conjugation:

Yo voy (I go), Tú vas (You -informal- go), Él va (He goes), Ella va (She goes), Usted va (You -formal- go), Nosotros vamos (We -masculine- go), Nosotras vamos (We -feminine- go), Ellos van (They -masculine- go), Ellas van (They -feminine- go), Ustedes van (You -plural- go).


Yo doy (I give), Tú das (You give), Él da (He gives), Nosotros damos (We give), Ellos dan (They give).


Note 1: Don’t forget that Él, Ella and Usted share the same form of the verb. It is the same case with Nosotros and Nosotras and with Ellos, Ellas and Ustedes.

Note 2: Ir is unique, because despite being an “ir” verb, it’s endings are like those of “ar” verbs.

Note 3: Notice that the verb Estar ( to be), from our second lesson, is an irregular verb.



The verbs Poner (to put), Hacer (to do, to make), Traer (to bring), Salir (to go out, to leave) are irregular in the Present tense, but only in the first person singular yo. All their other forms are regular. For example:

Poner = to put







 Hacer = to do







 Traer = to bring







Salir = to go out








Most verbs that end in cer or cir are irregular in the Present tense. Notice, however, that only the first person singular is irregular, and all other conjugations are regular.


conocer = to know







conducir = to drive







Note: Conocer means to know somebody or to know some place (to be familiar with).


Yo conozco a la profesora de español. (I know the spanish teacher.)

Nosotros conocemos Mexico. (We know Mexico.)



The verb Saber means “to know” (something, as in facts or knowledge), and is also irregular in the present tense but only in the first person singular yo. Otherwise, it’s conjugated as a normal “er” verb.


Saber = to know






Note: Saber means to have the knowledge of something.


Yo sé donde está el supermercado. (I know where the supermarket is.)

Ella sabe bailar salsa. (She knows how to dance salsa.)



The verb Ser (to be) is irregular in the Present tense. Ser is a very unique verb, and no other verb follows the same pattern:



Ser = to be







There are other irregular verbs that you’ll learn in time, but the ones covered in this lesson are some of the most common ones that you’ll need to know.


Read more about:

Present tense in Spanish

Spanish Irregular Past Tense

Spanish Expressions and Useful Words

Which are the most common Spanish expressions and useful words?

Let’s talk about some popular Spanish expressions and useful words. (Prior to beginning this lesson, visit our Spanish pronunciation guide to learn basic pronunciation, and be sure to refer back to it as necessary. There is also a link to it from the site map.)

The best ways to learn language is to start speaking it right away, then learn the grammatical rules once you know a few words and expressions. You may want to print out the list of Spanish expressions below, so you can read over them several times a day until you know them. Each is followed by the most appropriate translation, and sometimes a more literal translation in parenthesis.


Useful Spanish Expressions

¿Cuál es su nombre? – What is your name?

Mi nombre es Ana. – My name is Ana.

¿Cómo se llama usted? – What is your name?

Me llamo Ana. – My name is Ana (I call myself Ana).

Buenos días. – Good morning (Good day).

Buenas tardes. – Good afternoon.

Buenas noches. – Good evening (Good night).

¿Cómo está usted? – How are you?

Muy bien, gracias. ¿Y usted? – Very well, thank you. And you?

Le presento a Steve. – This is Steve (I introduce you to Steve).

Mucho gusto. – Nice to meet you (Much pleasure).

Igualmente. – And you too (Equally).

Hasta luego. – See you later (Until then).

Adiós. – Goodbye.

Hasta mañana. – See you tomorrow (Until tomorrow).

Por favor. – Please.

Gracias. – Thank you.

De nada. – You’re welcome (It’s nothing).

¿Cuánto cuesta? – How much (How much does it cost)?

Disculpe. – Excuse me.

Lo Siento. – I’m sorry.

La cuenta por favor. – The bill please.

¿Dónde está el baño? – Where is the bathroom?

¿Cómo se dice esto? – How do you say this (How does one say this)?

No entiendo. – I don’t understand.

Hable más lento por favor. – Speak more slowly please.

¿De dónde es usted? – Where are you from?

Yo soy de los Estados Unidos. – I am from the United States.

Useful Words in Spanish

 En la casa = at home

sala = living room

comedor = dining room

dormitorio = bedroom

cocina = kitchen

baño = bathroom


Las estaciones = the seasons

 invierno = winter

verano = summer

otoño = autumn

primavera = spring


La ubicación = the directions

norte = north

sur = south

este = east

oeste = west


La comida = the meal

 desayuno = breakfast

almuerzo = lunch

cena = dinner


Los días = the days

 lunes = Monday

martes = Tuesday

miércoles = Wednesday

jueves = Thursday

viernes = Friday

sábado = Saturday

domingo = Sunday


Los meses = The months

enero = January

febrero = February

marzo = March

abril = April

mayo = May

junio = June

julio = July

agosto = August

septiembre = September

octubre = October

noviembre = November

diciembre = December


Palabras de pregunta = question words

¿Qué? = What?

¿Cómo? = How?

¿Cuándo? = When?

¿Dónde? = Where?

¿Cuál? = Which?

¿Por qué? = Why?


Palabras de respuesta = answer words

Sí = yes

No = no

Quizás = maybe/perhaps

Tal vez = perhaps

Claro = of course

Nunca = never

Siempre = always

Ahora = now

Porque = because

Spanish grammar lessons

Spanish Irregular Past Tense

What is the Spanish Irregular Past Tense?

Spanish Irregular verbs in the Preterite or Past tense.

The verb DAR (to give) is irregular in the Preterite as it is in the Present tense too (Do you remember?..). It is irregular in the past because despite having an “ar” ending it is conjugated as a verb from the “er” or “ir” group.

When to use the Spanish Irregular Past Tense?

Dar : to give

Yo di el dinero ( I gave the money)

Tú no diste las gracias (You did not give thanks)

El dio las llaves (He gave the keys)

Nosotros no dimos el boleto (We did not give the ticket)

Ellos no dieron las maletas (They did not give the suitcases)


Note: Negative sentences are created puting a “no” before the verb.


With the verbs SENTIR (to feel, to be sorry) and PEDIR (to ask for something), notice that the “e” changes for an “i” in the forms that go with el, ella, usted and with ellos, ellas, ustedes.


Sentir : to feel, to be sorry

Yo sentí mucho dolor (I felt much pain)

Tú sentiste mucho miedo (You felt much fear)

El sintió pena (He felt sadness)

Nosotros sentimos calor (We felt heat)

Ellos sintieron llegar tarde (They were sorry to arrive late)


Pedir: to ask for something

Yo pedí un dormitorio grande (I asked for a big bedroom)

Tú pediste dos sodas (You asked for two sodas)

El pidió la cuenta (He asked for the bill)

Nosotros pedimos los itinerarios (We asked for the itineraries)

Ellos pidieron los libros (They asked for the books)


The verbs TENER (to have), ANDAR (to go, to ride, to walk) and ESTAR (to be) have uv in the Preterite stem.

More examples about the Spanish Irregular Past Tense.

Tener : to have

Yo tuve un vuelo muy bueno (I had a very good flight)

Tú tuviste hambre (You had hunger / You were hungry)

El tuvo los precios (He had the prices)

Nosotros tuvimos una fiesta en el centro (We had a party dowtown)

Ellos tuvieron un viaje interesante (They had a interesting trip)


Andar : to go, to walk, to ride

Yo anduve en bicicleta (I rode by bicycle)

Tú anduviste en la calle (You walked in the street)

El anduvo en bus (He rode by bus)

Nosotros anduvimos a pie (We went by foot)

Ellos anduvieron con sus padres (They went with their parents)


Estar: to be (location, temporal conditions)

Yo estuve en la oficina (I was at the ofice)

Tú no estuviste enfermo (You were not sick)

El estuvo en Sud América (He was in South America)

Nosotros no estuvimos en la ciudad (We were not in the city)

Ellos estuvieron contentos (They were content)

Note: ANDAR is a wide-ranging verb. Depending on the context, it can mean to go, to walk or to ride.


The verbs PONER (to put), PODER (to be able to), SABER (to know something, as in facts or knowledge), have a u in the Preterite stem.


Poner: to put

Yo puse el libro en la mochila (I put the book in the backpack)

Tú pusiste el carro en el garage (You put the car in the garage)

El puso el dinero en la billetera (He put the money in the wallet)

Nosotros pusimos el plato en la mesa (We put the plate on the table)

Ellos pusieron todo en orden (They put everything in order)


Poder : to be able to

Yo no pude comprar las medicinas (I could not buy the medicines)

Tú pudiste ir a la tienda (You could go to the store)

El no pudo llegar a tiempo (He could not arrive on time)

Nosotros pudimos tomar el vuelo (We could take the flight)

Ellos no pudieron encontrar el hotel (We could not find the hotel)


Saber: to know

Yo supe la lección de español (I knew the spanish lesson)

Tú no supiste que decir (You did not know what to say)

Ella no supo dónde está el museo (She did not know where the museum was)

Nosotros no supimos las direcciones (We did not know the directions)

Ellos supieron contestar en español (They knew to answer in Spanish)



The verbs QUERER (to want), HACER (to do, to make), VENIR (to come) have an i in the Preterite stem.


Querer: to want, to wish, to desire. 

Yo quise comer hamburguesas (I wanted to eat hamburgers)

Tú quisiste ir al cine (You wanted to go to the movies)

El quiso viajar pronto (He wanted to travel soon)

Nosotros quisimos practicar deportes (We wanted to practice sports)

Ellos quisieron escalar montañas (They wanted to climb mountains)


Hacer: to do, to make

Yo hice la cena (I made the dinner)

Tú hiciste las compras (You did the shopping)

El hizo las camas (He made the beds)

Nosotros hicimos la tarea (We did the homework)

Ellos hicieron los trámites (They did the paperwork)


Venir: to come

Yo vine a la fiesta (I came to the party)

Tu viniste en avión (You came by plane)

El vino sin el dinero (He came without the money)

Nosotros vinimos con los niños (We came with the children)

Ellos vinieron solos (They came alone)



The verbs DECIR (to say, to tell) and TRAER, (to bring) have a j in the Preterite. Notice the form for ellos,ellas, ustedes.


Decir: to say, to tell

Yo no dije una mentira (I did not tell a lie)

Tú dijiste la verdad (You told the truth)

El dijo la dirección correcta (He said the right address)

Nosotros no dijimos los datos equivocados (We did not tell the wrong data)

Ellos dijeron sus nombres (They said their names)


Traer : to bring

 Yo traje una guitarra (I brought a guitar)

Tú trajiste los documentos en orden (You brought the documents in order )

El trajo una maleta muy pesada (He brought a very heavy suitcase)

Nosotros trajimos equipo para escalar montañas (We brought mountain climbing gear)

Ellos trajeron comida enlatada (They brought canned food)



The verbs IR and SER are the same in the Preterite. So the context of the sentence will tell you wich one is used. For example: Yo fui a la escuela (I went to the school)…..Yo fui estudiante (I was a student)


Ir: to go

 Yo fui a la conferencia (I went to the conference)

Tú fuiste a la playa (You went to the beach)

El fue en avión (He went in plane/ by plane)

Nosotros fuimos al hotel (We went to the hotel)

Ellos fueron a buscar un taxi (They went to look for a taxi)


Ser: to be  (description, professions, permanent conditions)


Yo fui una profesora (I was a teacher)

Tú fuiste una enfermera (You were a nurse)

El fue un niño feliz (He was a happy child)

Nosotros fuimos muy gordos (We were very fat)

Ellos fueron muy tímidos (They were very timid)


Note: Ser in the Preterite is not frequently used. Instead we use SER in the Imperfect past (a tense that we will cover in the future).


Read more about irregular verbs in Spanish:

Present Tense | Irregular Verbs

Irregular Comparatives

Ser, Estar, Ir, Haber | Irregular Verbs

What are irregular yo forms? | Simple Present

Irregular Forms |Simple Conditional

Future | Irregular Verbs

Imperfect | Irregular Verbs

Simple Past | Irregular Forms

Tener , Venir | Irregular Forms

Irregular Tú Commands

Estar, Ir, Dar | Irregular Verbs in Spanish

Verb To Be in Spanish (Ser VS Estar)

What are the verbs to be in Spanish?

ser vs estar, verb to be in Spanish

It’s time to study the verb to be in Spanish. Let’s find out the difference between ser vs estar in Spanish. 

How to translate the verb to be in Spanish?

Los Pronombres Personales 

(Subject Pronouns)


Yo ………… I

Tú ………….You (informal)

Usted ……..You (formal)

Él ……………He

Ella …………She



Tú (you, informal) is used with friends and family.

Usted (you, formal) shows respect, used with people you are not familiar with.




Nosotras….We (feminine only)

Ustedes…..You (plural)

Ellos………. They

Ellas ……… They (feminine only)



Nosotros is the masculine form of “we,” used for a group of males, or a mixed-gender group.

Nosotras is the feminine form, and refers only to groups that are all female.

Ellos is the masculine form of “they,” used for a group of males or a group made up of both sexes.

Ellas is the feminine form, used only for groups of females.



Verb to bein Spanish: “SER” and “ESTAR”

Both mean “to be” or “to exist”, but there are distinct rules for using one or the other.

SER is used to indicate identity:

Yo soy Ana (I am Ana)

Tú eres Steve (You are Steve)

Usted es Juana Lopez (You are Juana Lopez)


SER is used to indicate profession:

Él es un profesor (He is a Teacher)

Ella es una enfermera (She is a nurse)


SER is used to indicate nationality:

Nosotros somos Norteamericanos (We are north americans)

Nosotras somos Cubanas (We are Cubans)


SER is used to describe people and to point out their essential qualities:

Ellos son altos (They are tall)

Ellas son muy bonitas (They are very pretty)

Ustedes son generosos (You are generous)


SER is used to describe physical aspects or characteristics of things or animals:

La mesa es grande (The table is big)

La comida es buena (The food is good)

El carro es rojo (The car is red)

El gato es gris (The cat is gray)


SER is used for time:

Son las 10 en punto (It’s 10 0’clock exactly – notice also that the plural is used, except in the case of one o’clock: “Es la una.”)


“SER” is generally used when expressing more permanent aspects of people or things.

 More examples with the verb to be in Spanish: ser

Entre ser o no ser, yo soy.Between being or not being, I am.
Te amo desde lo más profundo de mi ser.I love you from the depths of my being.
No me sirvió ser quien más te amó.It didn’t help me to be the one who loved you the most.
No ser como tú es mi consuelo.Not being like you is my consolation.
Acepto quién me tocó ser.I accept who I had to be.
Quisiera ser lo que un día fui.I would like to be what I once was.
Es duro ser quien tomó la decisión de irse.It’s hard being the one who made the decision to leave.
Hola, voy a ser la nueva profesora.Hi, I’m going to be the new teacher.
Es difícil ser la nueva en la escuela.It’s hard being the new one at school.
¿Llegaré a ser el amor de tu vida?Will I become the love of your life?
¿Sabes que puedo ser tu hermana?Do you know that I can be your sister?
Ser madre no siempre es sencillo.Being a mother is not always easy.
Quiero ser licenciada.I want to be licensed.
No parece ser muy alta.She doesn’t seem to be very tall.
Me tocó ser madre soltera.I got to be a single mother.
La mamá de Jacob es un ser obstinado.Jacob’s mom is a stubborn being.
Hace tiempo que dejé de ser una niña.I stopped being a girl a long time ago.
Sabes que tienes que ser mayor de edad.You know you have to be of legal age.
Disfruto ser una excelente profesional.I enjoy being an excellent professional.
Si no soy tu prioridad no quiero ser nada.If I’m not your priority I don’t want to be anything.
¡Quiero ser feliz!I want to be happy!
No ser una persona paciente a veces da problemas.Not being a patient person sometimes gives problems.
¿Sabes que puedo ser tu hija?Do you know that I can be your daughter?
Yeni, ser adulta a veces no es fácil.Yeni, being an adult is sometimes not easy.
Ser niño otra vez es mi sueño.Being a child again is my dream.
Ser muy responsable es importante para obtener el empleo.Being very responsible is important to get the job.
A mis 14 años me tocó ser el sostén de la casa.At the age of 14 I had to be the breadwinner of the house.
Ser parecida a mi madre es mi orgullo.Being similar to my mother is my pride.
Me encanta ser portador de excelentes noticias.I love being the bearer of great news.
Ser muy curiosa no significa que te guste el chisme.Being very curious does not mean that you like gossip.


ESTAR is used to indicate the location of people:

Yo estoy en la oficina (I am in the office)

Tú estás en la casa (You are in the house)

Usted está en el parque (You are in the park)


ESTAR is used to express conditions or emotion subject to change:

Él está feliz (He is happy)

Ella está triste (She is sad)

Usted está enfermo (You are sick)


ESTAR describes the temporary physical state of things:

La mesa está sucia (The table is dirty – a condition subject to change, versus “La mesa es grande,” which means “The table is big,” a more permanent aspect.)


ESTAR is used with the progressive forms:

Nosotros estamos comprando (We are buying)

Nosotras estamos comiendo (We are eating)

“ESTAR” is used to when expressing more temporary aspects of people or things.

Ser : verb to be in Spanish

Yo soy……….I am

Tú eres……….You are (informal)

Usted es……..You are (formal)

Él es…………. He is

Ella es……….. She is

Nosotros somos….We are (masculine)

Nosotras somos…. We are (feminine)

Ustedes son….You are (plural)

Ellos son……..They are (masculine)

Ellas son……..They are (feminine)


Estar : verb to be in Spanish

Yo estoy……….I am

Tú estás………..You are

Usted está …… You are

Él está…………..He is

Ella está…………She is

Nosotros estamos………We are

Nosotras estamos……… We are

Ustedes están……You are (plural)

Ellos están……….They are

Ellas están………. They are


  • Adjectives:

She is tall – Ella es alta.

He is intelligent – Él es inteligente

  • Occupations:

My mother is engineer – Mi mamá es ingeniera.

We are students – Nosotros somos estudiantes

You are a teacher- Tú  eres una maestra

  • Emotions/Feelings:

Paula is very happy – Paula está muy felíz

My grandmother is sick – Mi abuela está enferma

  • Places:

They are far – Ellos están lejos

We are in the beach – Nosotros estamos en la playa

Read and practice the forms: Ser and Estar in Spanish.

More examples with the verb to be in Spanish: estar

No puedo estar contigo.I can not be with you.
No puedo estar más de acuerdo.I could not agree more.
Recuérdame estar atenta.Remind me to be vigilant.
Pienso estar allá en breve.I plan to be there soon.
No quiero estar presente.I don’t want to be present.
Me gustaría estar a tu lado.I would like to be by your side.
Estar de pie me hace sentir mal.Standing makes me feel bad.
Me gusta estar acostada.I like to lie down.
Voy a estar en el patio.I will be in the yard.
Estar aquí me ayudó a pensar las cosas.Being here helped me think things through.
Al estar sola me aburro.Being alone makes me bored.
¿Prefiere estar sentado mientras espera?Do you prefer to be seated while you wait?
Debe estar de reposo 1 mes.Must be off for 1 month.
Es normal estar triste en estos casos.It is normal to be sad in these cases.
Me robaron por estar en la calle de noche.I was robbed for being on the street at night.
Por estar hablando no entendí la clase.Because I was talking, I didn’t understand the class.
Me adapté a estar sola.I adapted to being alone.
Quiero estar temprano para no hacer cola.I want to be early so I don’t queue.
Suelo estar conectada siempre.I am always connected.
Estar hambrienta me pone débil.Being hungry makes me weak.
Quiero estar aquí para apoyarte.I want to be here to support you.
Estar en ascuas me pone muy tensa.Being on tenterhooks makes me very tense.
Me gustaría estar entre las finalistas.I would like to be among the finalists.
Estar al frente del programa fue una experiencia inolvidable.Leading the program was an unforgettable experience.
Voy a estar al pendiente de su salud.I will keep an eye on your health.
En la sala de estar tengo un vaso, alcánzamelo.I have a glass in the living room, reach it for me.
Si quieres verme, te voy a estar esperando.If you want to see me, I’ll be waiting for you.
Tu recuerdo siempre va a estar presente.Your memory will always be present.
Siempre te voy a estar esperando.I will always be waiting for you.
A donde quiera que llegues siempre debes saber estar a la altura.Wherever you arrive you must always know how to live up to it.

Ser and Estar | Quizlet

How do you use Ser and Estar in Spanish?

Ser, Estar, Ir, Haber | Irregular Verbs in Spanish

What is the conjugation of Ser?

Ser or Estar | Trivia Questions

What is the difference between Estar and Ser in Spanish?

How do you se Ser and Estar in Spanish? | Test

Practice Ser and Estar in Spanish