What is a demonstrative adjective in Spanish?
Learn how to use demonstrative adjectives in Spanish translation. In this lesson, we will discuss demonstratives of two types: demonstrative adjectives and demonstrative pronouns.
Adjective: describes a noun
Pronoun: takes the place of a noun
The same is true in Spanish.
Ella escribe este libro.- She writes this book. (adjective)
Ella escribe este – She writes this. (pronoun)
Eso es mío –That is mine.
Eso es mío.-That (one) is mine
Note: In Spanish, we also say “this” and “that”, but there is another, separate word used to mean “that one over there.” This form is used when the object is more than just a short distance away, for example, on the other side of the room.
Here are the three forms for “this” “that” and “that one over there.”
ese – that
aquel – that one over there
Remember that in Spanish, adjectives have four forms:
masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular, feminine plural.
For example, the adjective “short” has four forms in Spanish:
“pequeño, pequeños, pequeña, pequeñas”.
el chico pequeño
los chicos pequeños
la chica pequeña
las chicas pequeñas
The demonstrative adjectives in Spanish translation also have four forms:
este lápiz (this pencil)
estos lápices (these pencils)
esta libreta (this notebook)
estas libretas (these notebooks)
ese lápiz (that pencil)
esos lápices (those pencils)
esa libreta (that notebook)
esas libretas (those notebooks)
aquel lápiz (that pencil over there)
aquellos lápices (those pencils over there)
aquella libreta (that notebook over there)
aquellas libretas (those notebooks over there)
The corresponding demonstrative pronouns:
este (this one – masculine)
estos (these ones – masculine)
esta (this one – feminine)
estas (these ones – feminine)
ese (that one – masculine)
esos (those ones – masculine)
esa (that one – feminine)
esas (those ones – feminine)
aquel (that one over there – masculine)
aquellos (those ones over there – masculine)
aquella (that one over there – feminine)
aquellas (those ones over there – feminine)
Each demonstrative pronoun also has a neuter form. They do not change for number or gender, and they are used to refer to abstract ideas, or to an unknown object.
esto (this matter, this thing)
eso (that matter, that thing)
aquello (that matter/thing over there)
Read more about the demonstratives adjectives in Spanish